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Effects of surface-modifying ligands on the colloidal stability of ZnO nanoparticle dispersions in in vitro cytotoxicity test media.

Kwon D, Park J, Park J, Choi SY, Yoon TH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed that ZnO NPs were better dispersed in cell culture media via surface modification with positively or negatively charged molecules.Moreover, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI and DMEM media, ZnO NPs were found even better dispersed for a longer period (at least 48 hours).This confirmed the important roles of surface-modifying compounds and of surface charge on the resultant cytotoxicities of NPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Nanoscale Characterization and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
The extrinsic physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs), such as hydrodynamic size, surface charge, surface functional group, and colloidal stabilities, in toxicity testing media are known to have a significant influence on in vitro toxicity assessments. Therefore, interpretation of nanotoxicity test results should be based on reliable characterization of the NPs' extrinsic properties in actual toxicity testing media. Here, we present a set of physicochemical characterization results for commercially available ZnO NPs, including core diameter, hydrodynamic diameter, surface charges, and colloidal stabilities, in two in vitro toxicity testing media (Roswell Park Memorial Institute [RPMI] and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium [DMEM]), as well as simple cell viability assay results for selected ZnO NPs. Four commercially available and manufactured ZnO NPs, with different core sizes, were used in this study, and their surface charge was modified with five different surface coating materials (sodium citrate, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, poly(acrylic acid), poly(allylamine hydrochloride), and poly-L-lysine hydrochloride). The results showed that ZnO NPs were better dispersed in cell culture media via surface modification with positively or negatively charged molecules. Moreover, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI and DMEM media, ZnO NPs were found even better dispersed for a longer period (at least 48 hours). For the HeLa cells exposed to ZnO NPs in DMEM media without FBS, surface charge-dependent cytotoxicity trends were observed, while these trends were not observed for those cells cultured in FBS-containing media. This confirmed the important roles of surface-modifying compounds and of surface charge on the resultant cytotoxicities of NPs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hydrodynamic diameter distributions of (A) ZnOAA20(PAA), (B) ZnOSM20(PAA), and (C) ZnOAE100(PAA), after 0- and 30-hour exposures to RPMI media containing FBS.Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum; h, hours; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); RPMI, Roswell Park Memorial Institute; ZnOAA20(PAA), PAA-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PAA), PAA-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PAA), PAA-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO.
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f4-ijn-9-057: Hydrodynamic diameter distributions of (A) ZnOAA20(PAA), (B) ZnOSM20(PAA), and (C) ZnOAE100(PAA), after 0- and 30-hour exposures to RPMI media containing FBS.Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum; h, hours; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); RPMI, Roswell Park Memorial Institute; ZnOAA20(PAA), PAA-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PAA), PAA-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PAA), PAA-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO.

Mentions: FBS is generally added to in vitro toxicity media for cell growth, thus the effect of FBS on the stability of NPs is highly relevant to evaluation of the toxicity potential of NPs. For the effect of protein, it has been reported that the presence of FBS, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and human serum albumin (HSA) in media notably enhanced the stability of NPs.18,19,25 This stabilization occurs through electrosteric force, which can generally be achieved by attaching biomacromolecules to the surface of NPs.15 In Figures 2A, 2B, and 2C, uncoated ZnOAA20 and ZnOAA20(PLL) NPs were observed to give rapid sedimentation in the absence of FBS, whereas in the presence of FBS, these particles were better dispersed than the uncoated ZnOAA20 NPs. This result shows that ZnO NPs are stable in suspension in the presence of FBS, which is in accordance with a previous study, by Allouni et al on the stability of TiO2 NPs in RPMI containing FBS.18 On the other hand, ZnOAA20(PAA) NPs were maintained in dispersion at 50%, regardless of the presence of FBS in RPMI media, and the hydrodynamic size distributions of the suspended particles were maintained in the range of 180–370 nm (Figure 4).


Effects of surface-modifying ligands on the colloidal stability of ZnO nanoparticle dispersions in in vitro cytotoxicity test media.

Kwon D, Park J, Park J, Choi SY, Yoon TH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Hydrodynamic diameter distributions of (A) ZnOAA20(PAA), (B) ZnOSM20(PAA), and (C) ZnOAE100(PAA), after 0- and 30-hour exposures to RPMI media containing FBS.Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum; h, hours; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); RPMI, Roswell Park Memorial Institute; ZnOAA20(PAA), PAA-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PAA), PAA-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PAA), PAA-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4279775&req=5

f4-ijn-9-057: Hydrodynamic diameter distributions of (A) ZnOAA20(PAA), (B) ZnOSM20(PAA), and (C) ZnOAE100(PAA), after 0- and 30-hour exposures to RPMI media containing FBS.Abbreviations: FBS, fetal bovine serum; h, hours; PAA, poly(acrylic acid); RPMI, Roswell Park Memorial Institute; ZnOAA20(PAA), PAA-coated, 20 nm ZnO; ZnOAE100(PAA), PAA-coated, <100 nm ZnO; ZnOSM20(PAA), PAA-coated, 10–35 nm ZnO.
Mentions: FBS is generally added to in vitro toxicity media for cell growth, thus the effect of FBS on the stability of NPs is highly relevant to evaluation of the toxicity potential of NPs. For the effect of protein, it has been reported that the presence of FBS, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and human serum albumin (HSA) in media notably enhanced the stability of NPs.18,19,25 This stabilization occurs through electrosteric force, which can generally be achieved by attaching biomacromolecules to the surface of NPs.15 In Figures 2A, 2B, and 2C, uncoated ZnOAA20 and ZnOAA20(PLL) NPs were observed to give rapid sedimentation in the absence of FBS, whereas in the presence of FBS, these particles were better dispersed than the uncoated ZnOAA20 NPs. This result shows that ZnO NPs are stable in suspension in the presence of FBS, which is in accordance with a previous study, by Allouni et al on the stability of TiO2 NPs in RPMI containing FBS.18 On the other hand, ZnOAA20(PAA) NPs were maintained in dispersion at 50%, regardless of the presence of FBS in RPMI media, and the hydrodynamic size distributions of the suspended particles were maintained in the range of 180–370 nm (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: The results showed that ZnO NPs were better dispersed in cell culture media via surface modification with positively or negatively charged molecules.Moreover, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI and DMEM media, ZnO NPs were found even better dispersed for a longer period (at least 48 hours).This confirmed the important roles of surface-modifying compounds and of surface charge on the resultant cytotoxicities of NPs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Nanoscale Characterization and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
The extrinsic physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs), such as hydrodynamic size, surface charge, surface functional group, and colloidal stabilities, in toxicity testing media are known to have a significant influence on in vitro toxicity assessments. Therefore, interpretation of nanotoxicity test results should be based on reliable characterization of the NPs' extrinsic properties in actual toxicity testing media. Here, we present a set of physicochemical characterization results for commercially available ZnO NPs, including core diameter, hydrodynamic diameter, surface charges, and colloidal stabilities, in two in vitro toxicity testing media (Roswell Park Memorial Institute [RPMI] and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium [DMEM]), as well as simple cell viability assay results for selected ZnO NPs. Four commercially available and manufactured ZnO NPs, with different core sizes, were used in this study, and their surface charge was modified with five different surface coating materials (sodium citrate, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, poly(acrylic acid), poly(allylamine hydrochloride), and poly-L-lysine hydrochloride). The results showed that ZnO NPs were better dispersed in cell culture media via surface modification with positively or negatively charged molecules. Moreover, in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI and DMEM media, ZnO NPs were found even better dispersed for a longer period (at least 48 hours). For the HeLa cells exposed to ZnO NPs in DMEM media without FBS, surface charge-dependent cytotoxicity trends were observed, while these trends were not observed for those cells cultured in FBS-containing media. This confirmed the important roles of surface-modifying compounds and of surface charge on the resultant cytotoxicities of NPs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus