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Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction.

Choi SJ, Choy JH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure.A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles.This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle-protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic illustration of nanoparticle–serum protein interaction and possible consequences.Notes: Serum protein adsorbed on (or bound to) the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) may facilitate immune recognition (uptake and elimination by immune cells) or cellular uptake. Protein conformational changes as a consequence of nanoparticle–protein interaction could cause undesirable toxicological effects or decrease biological activity. Uptake amount, uptake mechanism, and target-organ distribution of nanoparticles can also be influenced by nanoparticle–protein corona.
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f4-ijn-9-261: Schematic illustration of nanoparticle–serum protein interaction and possible consequences.Notes: Serum protein adsorbed on (or bound to) the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) may facilitate immune recognition (uptake and elimination by immune cells) or cellular uptake. Protein conformational changes as a consequence of nanoparticle–protein interaction could cause undesirable toxicological effects or decrease biological activity. Uptake amount, uptake mechanism, and target-organ distribution of nanoparticles can also be influenced by nanoparticle–protein corona.

Mentions: Apolipoproteins are of importance in the context of their ability to bind to diverse types of nanoparticle surfaces.52 In particular, apolipoprotein E was able to transport nanoparticles across the blood–brain barrier, although a small amount of protein was bound to the surface.53 In this case, the neurotoxicity of nanoparticles must be also considered, although apolipoprotein E-adsorbed nanoparticles can be used as carriers for delivering drugs at brain target sites. It is clear that biological activity and molecular targeting of nanoparticles could be dependent on protein types adsorbed on nanoparticles. Furthermore, information about protein structural or conformational changes as a consequence of protein–nanoparticle interaction is crucial, as these may cause a loss of bioactivity and subsequently lead to potential toxicological effects (Figure 4).


Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction.

Choi SJ, Choy JH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Schematic illustration of nanoparticle–serum protein interaction and possible consequences.Notes: Serum protein adsorbed on (or bound to) the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) may facilitate immune recognition (uptake and elimination by immune cells) or cellular uptake. Protein conformational changes as a consequence of nanoparticle–protein interaction could cause undesirable toxicological effects or decrease biological activity. Uptake amount, uptake mechanism, and target-organ distribution of nanoparticles can also be influenced by nanoparticle–protein corona.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4279768&req=5

f4-ijn-9-261: Schematic illustration of nanoparticle–serum protein interaction and possible consequences.Notes: Serum protein adsorbed on (or bound to) the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) may facilitate immune recognition (uptake and elimination by immune cells) or cellular uptake. Protein conformational changes as a consequence of nanoparticle–protein interaction could cause undesirable toxicological effects or decrease biological activity. Uptake amount, uptake mechanism, and target-organ distribution of nanoparticles can also be influenced by nanoparticle–protein corona.
Mentions: Apolipoproteins are of importance in the context of their ability to bind to diverse types of nanoparticle surfaces.52 In particular, apolipoprotein E was able to transport nanoparticles across the blood–brain barrier, although a small amount of protein was bound to the surface.53 In this case, the neurotoxicity of nanoparticles must be also considered, although apolipoprotein E-adsorbed nanoparticles can be used as carriers for delivering drugs at brain target sites. It is clear that biological activity and molecular targeting of nanoparticles could be dependent on protein types adsorbed on nanoparticles. Furthermore, information about protein structural or conformational changes as a consequence of protein–nanoparticle interaction is crucial, as these may cause a loss of bioactivity and subsequently lead to potential toxicological effects (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure.A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles.This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle-protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus