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Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction.

Choi SJ, Choy JH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure.A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles.This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle-protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Putative biological fates of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in cells or tissues.Notes: ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved in biological fluids, a process that is highly dependent on the pH environment and particle size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles, and the presence of other organic compounds or dispersing agents. After being taken up by cells or tissues as particulate and/or ionic forms, nanoparticles are further dissolved, and zinc ions are then complexed by organic ligands, eg, generating Zn2+ ligated by thiol group.
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f3-ijn-9-261: Putative biological fates of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in cells or tissues.Notes: ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved in biological fluids, a process that is highly dependent on the pH environment and particle size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles, and the presence of other organic compounds or dispersing agents. After being taken up by cells or tissues as particulate and/or ionic forms, nanoparticles are further dissolved, and zinc ions are then complexed by organic ligands, eg, generating Zn2+ ligated by thiol group.

Mentions: The fates of ZnO nanoparticles in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were determined by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis;41 the nanoparticles are taken up by cells in particulate forms, then completely and rapidly dissolve inside cells, generating Zn2+ ligated by thiol groups. This is consistent with the in vivo ZnO nanoparticle fate determined by Paek et al.26 The bioavailability fate of isotope-labeled ZnO nanoparticles was traced by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in mud shrimp (Corophium volutator);42 ionic zinc from particles in an aqueous environment was determined primarily to contribute to the uptake and bioavailability fate of ZnO nanoparticles. Although the particulate form affects the kinetics and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, it appears that the fate of ZnO nanoparticles in tissues or cells is primarily as ionic zinc, which should be considered in underlying the mechanisms of their in vitro and in vivo toxicity (Table 1 and Figure 3). On the other hand, the particle-dissolution properties and ionic fate of ZnO nanoparticles in tissues are not advantageous for such biological applications as drug-delivery systems, diagnostics, and therapeutics, which could be overcome, for example, by using capping agents or coating materials. It is worth noting that part of ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved in biological fluids, but the nanoparticles retain their particulate forms in the systemic circulation. Therefore, both particulate and zinc ionic fates must be considered to understand the toxicity and TK of ZnO nanoparticles.


Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction.

Choi SJ, Choy JH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Putative biological fates of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in cells or tissues.Notes: ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved in biological fluids, a process that is highly dependent on the pH environment and particle size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles, and the presence of other organic compounds or dispersing agents. After being taken up by cells or tissues as particulate and/or ionic forms, nanoparticles are further dissolved, and zinc ions are then complexed by organic ligands, eg, generating Zn2+ ligated by thiol group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4279768&req=5

f3-ijn-9-261: Putative biological fates of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) in cells or tissues.Notes: ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved in biological fluids, a process that is highly dependent on the pH environment and particle size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles, and the presence of other organic compounds or dispersing agents. After being taken up by cells or tissues as particulate and/or ionic forms, nanoparticles are further dissolved, and zinc ions are then complexed by organic ligands, eg, generating Zn2+ ligated by thiol group.
Mentions: The fates of ZnO nanoparticles in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were determined by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis;41 the nanoparticles are taken up by cells in particulate forms, then completely and rapidly dissolve inside cells, generating Zn2+ ligated by thiol groups. This is consistent with the in vivo ZnO nanoparticle fate determined by Paek et al.26 The bioavailability fate of isotope-labeled ZnO nanoparticles was traced by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in mud shrimp (Corophium volutator);42 ionic zinc from particles in an aqueous environment was determined primarily to contribute to the uptake and bioavailability fate of ZnO nanoparticles. Although the particulate form affects the kinetics and toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, it appears that the fate of ZnO nanoparticles in tissues or cells is primarily as ionic zinc, which should be considered in underlying the mechanisms of their in vitro and in vivo toxicity (Table 1 and Figure 3). On the other hand, the particle-dissolution properties and ionic fate of ZnO nanoparticles in tissues are not advantageous for such biological applications as drug-delivery systems, diagnostics, and therapeutics, which could be overcome, for example, by using capping agents or coating materials. It is worth noting that part of ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved in biological fluids, but the nanoparticles retain their particulate forms in the systemic circulation. Therefore, both particulate and zinc ionic fates must be considered to understand the toxicity and TK of ZnO nanoparticles.

Bottom Line: Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure.A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles.This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle-protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus