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Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis.

Romeo C, Santoro G - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2014)

Bottom Line: Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided.Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved.We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric, Gynaecological, Microbiological and Biomedical Sciences, A.O.U. "G. Martino", University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Oxidative stress generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in varicocele could have negative effects on germ and Leydig cells. Moreover, it could also have critical actions on blood vessels and spermatozoa of growing adolescents.
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fig1: Oxidative stress generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in varicocele could have negative effects on germ and Leydig cells. Moreover, it could also have critical actions on blood vessels and spermatozoa of growing adolescents.

Mentions: The seminiferous tubules include a complex stratified epithelium containing spermatogenic cells and supporting cells (Sertoli cells). The epithelium is surrounded by a lamina propria composed of a double-layered basal lamina and 5–7 external cellular layers, constituted by 3–5 inner layers of myofibroblasts and one or more outer layers of fibroblasts. These cellular layers are separated by laminae of extracellular connective tissue components. Between lamina propria and epithelium, a basal lamina exists. In the angular interstices between the seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells take place, which represent the endocrine component of the testis [36–38]. The NO produced by Leydig cells can freely diffuse across cellular membranes and stimulate testicular function at physiological concentrations. Similarly, its overproduction could promote different pathological actions as vasodilatation of blood vessels contributing to the blood stasis characteristic of varicocele and prolonged relaxation of myofibroblasts, in the context of the well-known effects of NO on smooth muscle cells observed in other tissues, consequently compromising the peristaltic activity necessary for sperm transport [34, 39]. Moreover, as testicular steroidogenesis [40] and germ cells [41] are limited by high levels of NO, perhaps maintaining the high oxidative stress, testosterone production by Leydig cells and germ cell function could be affected by the cytotoxic effects of NO in the long run. Similarly, in Sertoli cells, NO overproduction could alter both quantitatively and qualitatively the patterns of talin and vinculin, actin-associated proteins of the adherens junctions, known to be fundamental in regulating cellular adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation [42–44]. Considering also the initial involvement of basal lamina in its two major components (collagen type IV and laminin) described in adolescents with varicocele [45] derives a possible general imbalance in interactions among Sertoli cells, peritubular myofibroblasts, Leydig cells, basal lamina, and germ cells due to NO (Figure 1).


Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis.

Romeo C, Santoro G - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2014)

Oxidative stress generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in varicocele could have negative effects on germ and Leydig cells. Moreover, it could also have critical actions on blood vessels and spermatozoa of growing adolescents.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4279722&req=5

fig1: Oxidative stress generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in varicocele could have negative effects on germ and Leydig cells. Moreover, it could also have critical actions on blood vessels and spermatozoa of growing adolescents.
Mentions: The seminiferous tubules include a complex stratified epithelium containing spermatogenic cells and supporting cells (Sertoli cells). The epithelium is surrounded by a lamina propria composed of a double-layered basal lamina and 5–7 external cellular layers, constituted by 3–5 inner layers of myofibroblasts and one or more outer layers of fibroblasts. These cellular layers are separated by laminae of extracellular connective tissue components. Between lamina propria and epithelium, a basal lamina exists. In the angular interstices between the seminiferous tubules, Leydig cells take place, which represent the endocrine component of the testis [36–38]. The NO produced by Leydig cells can freely diffuse across cellular membranes and stimulate testicular function at physiological concentrations. Similarly, its overproduction could promote different pathological actions as vasodilatation of blood vessels contributing to the blood stasis characteristic of varicocele and prolonged relaxation of myofibroblasts, in the context of the well-known effects of NO on smooth muscle cells observed in other tissues, consequently compromising the peristaltic activity necessary for sperm transport [34, 39]. Moreover, as testicular steroidogenesis [40] and germ cells [41] are limited by high levels of NO, perhaps maintaining the high oxidative stress, testosterone production by Leydig cells and germ cell function could be affected by the cytotoxic effects of NO in the long run. Similarly, in Sertoli cells, NO overproduction could alter both quantitatively and qualitatively the patterns of talin and vinculin, actin-associated proteins of the adherens junctions, known to be fundamental in regulating cellular adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation [42–44]. Considering also the initial involvement of basal lamina in its two major components (collagen type IV and laminin) described in adolescents with varicocele [45] derives a possible general imbalance in interactions among Sertoli cells, peritubular myofibroblasts, Leydig cells, basal lamina, and germ cells due to NO (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided.Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved.We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatric, Gynaecological, Microbiological and Biomedical Sciences, A.O.U. "G. Martino", University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy.

ABSTRACT
We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus