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EssOilDB: a database of essential oils reflecting terpene composition and variability in the plant kingdom.

Kumari S, Pundhir S, Priya P, Jeena G, Punetha A, Chawla K, Firdos Jafaree Z, Mondal S, Yadav G - Database (Oxford) (2014)

Bottom Line: The potential biological information stored in essential oil composition data can provide an insight into the silent language of plants, and the roles of these chemical emissions in defense, communication and pollinator attraction.EssOilDB presently contains 123 041 essential oil records spanning a century of published reports on volatile profiles, with data from 92 plant taxonomic families, spread across diverse geographical locations all over the globe.EssOilDB would serve as a valuable information resource, for students and researchers in plant biology, in the design and discovery of new odor profiles, as well as for entrepreneurs--the potential for generating consumer specific scents being one of the most attractive and interesting topics in the cosmetic industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR), New Delhi 110067 India.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Biological analysis of EssOilDB data for insights into terpene diversity and variability. (A) Graphical overview of different type of terpenes (monoterpene, sesquiterpene and diterpene) and their source plant parts. Note that essential oils obtained from root and wood have higher number of unique sesquiterpenes as compared to monoterpenes whereas other plant parts have shown its reverse, reflecting differential activation of plastidial MEP pathway as discussed in the text. (B) Terpene emission patterns of Echinacea purpurea under normal and biotic (cucumber mosaic virus) stress. Nodes represent compounds and edges represents normal (green) or stressed (red) conditions. Pink nodes represent sesquiterpenes while green nodes represent monoterpenes. Edge width represents percentage emission and it is clearly visible that Myrcene and alpha-terpene emissions (red asterisks) increase under stress. (C) Terpene profile network of Nigella sativa under normal and drought stress. Green edges represent amount of irrigation over four days. Carvacrol emission increases under drought stress (thick red and orange edges).
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bau120-F5: Biological analysis of EssOilDB data for insights into terpene diversity and variability. (A) Graphical overview of different type of terpenes (monoterpene, sesquiterpene and diterpene) and their source plant parts. Note that essential oils obtained from root and wood have higher number of unique sesquiterpenes as compared to monoterpenes whereas other plant parts have shown its reverse, reflecting differential activation of plastidial MEP pathway as discussed in the text. (B) Terpene emission patterns of Echinacea purpurea under normal and biotic (cucumber mosaic virus) stress. Nodes represent compounds and edges represents normal (green) or stressed (red) conditions. Pink nodes represent sesquiterpenes while green nodes represent monoterpenes. Edge width represents percentage emission and it is clearly visible that Myrcene and alpha-terpene emissions (red asterisks) increase under stress. (C) Terpene profile network of Nigella sativa under normal and drought stress. Green edges represent amount of irrigation over four days. Carvacrol emission increases under drought stress (thick red and orange edges).

Mentions: As an illustrative example, we have used EssOilDB to carry out an assessment of the relationship between terpene biosynthetic pathways and actual emission records. The biosynthesis of monoterpenes and diterpenes is conventionally believed to be compartmentalized in plastidial territory of the plant where the 2C-Methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is known to be located. In contrast, sesquiterpenes and triterpenes are supposed to be synthesized in cytosol through classical mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway (27). This assumption is further supported by recent studies on promoter analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana that suggest an abundance of light and circadian clock related motifs in MEP pathway gene promoters reflecting higher expression of this pathway in green tissues as compared to MVA pathway (28). Spatiotemporal expression analysis of genes encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), geranyl pyrophospate synthase (GPPS) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS) in A. thaliana have also supported the fact that photosynthetic tissues have higher expression of AtGPPS and AtGGPPS genes; generally assumed to synthesize monoterpenes and diterpenes respectively. In contrast, the AtFPPS gene, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes, showed higher activity in roots and seeds as compared to above ground, green parts (28). We used EssOilDB to test this hypothesis and found that green parts of plants (that are likely to have a more active plastidial MEP pathway) do indeed show relatively greater amounts of released hemi, mono and diterpenes, as compared to sesquiterpenes. In contrast, the non-green plant parts, such as the underground regions and woody parts (signifying an absence of plastidial units and therefore a less active MEP pathway) release higher amounts of sesquiterpenes as compared to monoterpenes. This has been depicted in Figure 5A, with emission data records from green (plastidial) parts, leaves, fruits and flowers releasing a higher percentage of monoterpenes as compared to sesquiterpenes, whereas roots and bark or woody parts release more sesquiterpenes, thus significantly adding value to the hypothesis.Figure 5.


EssOilDB: a database of essential oils reflecting terpene composition and variability in the plant kingdom.

Kumari S, Pundhir S, Priya P, Jeena G, Punetha A, Chawla K, Firdos Jafaree Z, Mondal S, Yadav G - Database (Oxford) (2014)

Biological analysis of EssOilDB data for insights into terpene diversity and variability. (A) Graphical overview of different type of terpenes (monoterpene, sesquiterpene and diterpene) and their source plant parts. Note that essential oils obtained from root and wood have higher number of unique sesquiterpenes as compared to monoterpenes whereas other plant parts have shown its reverse, reflecting differential activation of plastidial MEP pathway as discussed in the text. (B) Terpene emission patterns of Echinacea purpurea under normal and biotic (cucumber mosaic virus) stress. Nodes represent compounds and edges represents normal (green) or stressed (red) conditions. Pink nodes represent sesquiterpenes while green nodes represent monoterpenes. Edge width represents percentage emission and it is clearly visible that Myrcene and alpha-terpene emissions (red asterisks) increase under stress. (C) Terpene profile network of Nigella sativa under normal and drought stress. Green edges represent amount of irrigation over four days. Carvacrol emission increases under drought stress (thick red and orange edges).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4273207&req=5

bau120-F5: Biological analysis of EssOilDB data for insights into terpene diversity and variability. (A) Graphical overview of different type of terpenes (monoterpene, sesquiterpene and diterpene) and their source plant parts. Note that essential oils obtained from root and wood have higher number of unique sesquiterpenes as compared to monoterpenes whereas other plant parts have shown its reverse, reflecting differential activation of plastidial MEP pathway as discussed in the text. (B) Terpene emission patterns of Echinacea purpurea under normal and biotic (cucumber mosaic virus) stress. Nodes represent compounds and edges represents normal (green) or stressed (red) conditions. Pink nodes represent sesquiterpenes while green nodes represent monoterpenes. Edge width represents percentage emission and it is clearly visible that Myrcene and alpha-terpene emissions (red asterisks) increase under stress. (C) Terpene profile network of Nigella sativa under normal and drought stress. Green edges represent amount of irrigation over four days. Carvacrol emission increases under drought stress (thick red and orange edges).
Mentions: As an illustrative example, we have used EssOilDB to carry out an assessment of the relationship between terpene biosynthetic pathways and actual emission records. The biosynthesis of monoterpenes and diterpenes is conventionally believed to be compartmentalized in plastidial territory of the plant where the 2C-Methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is known to be located. In contrast, sesquiterpenes and triterpenes are supposed to be synthesized in cytosol through classical mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway (27). This assumption is further supported by recent studies on promoter analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana that suggest an abundance of light and circadian clock related motifs in MEP pathway gene promoters reflecting higher expression of this pathway in green tissues as compared to MVA pathway (28). Spatiotemporal expression analysis of genes encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), geranyl pyrophospate synthase (GPPS) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (GGPPS) in A. thaliana have also supported the fact that photosynthetic tissues have higher expression of AtGPPS and AtGGPPS genes; generally assumed to synthesize monoterpenes and diterpenes respectively. In contrast, the AtFPPS gene, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes, showed higher activity in roots and seeds as compared to above ground, green parts (28). We used EssOilDB to test this hypothesis and found that green parts of plants (that are likely to have a more active plastidial MEP pathway) do indeed show relatively greater amounts of released hemi, mono and diterpenes, as compared to sesquiterpenes. In contrast, the non-green plant parts, such as the underground regions and woody parts (signifying an absence of plastidial units and therefore a less active MEP pathway) release higher amounts of sesquiterpenes as compared to monoterpenes. This has been depicted in Figure 5A, with emission data records from green (plastidial) parts, leaves, fruits and flowers releasing a higher percentage of monoterpenes as compared to sesquiterpenes, whereas roots and bark or woody parts release more sesquiterpenes, thus significantly adding value to the hypothesis.Figure 5.

Bottom Line: The potential biological information stored in essential oil composition data can provide an insight into the silent language of plants, and the roles of these chemical emissions in defense, communication and pollinator attraction.EssOilDB presently contains 123 041 essential oil records spanning a century of published reports on volatile profiles, with data from 92 plant taxonomic families, spread across diverse geographical locations all over the globe.EssOilDB would serve as a valuable information resource, for students and researchers in plant biology, in the design and discovery of new odor profiles, as well as for entrepreneurs--the potential for generating consumer specific scents being one of the most attractive and interesting topics in the cosmetic industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computational Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR), New Delhi 110067 India.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus