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Gender stereotype susceptibility.

Pavlova MA, Weber S, Simoes E, Sokolov AN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females.The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping.The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Medical School, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Gender stereotype susceptibility.Scores on the event arrangement (EA) test for female (represented by orange circles) and male (represented by black triangles) participants in the groups with different information given prior to testing: S, standard instruction, gender neutral message (data pooled together from control groups of the present study and [39]); P_M, positive for males, “Males are usually better on this task” – an explicit positive gender stereotype message for males (data from [39]), P_F, positive for females: “Females are usually better on this task” – an explicit positive gender stereotype message for females (data from [39]); N_M, negative for males, “Males are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for males, and N_F, negative for females: “Females are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for females. Vertical bars represent ±SEM.
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pone-0114802-g002: Gender stereotype susceptibility.Scores on the event arrangement (EA) test for female (represented by orange circles) and male (represented by black triangles) participants in the groups with different information given prior to testing: S, standard instruction, gender neutral message (data pooled together from control groups of the present study and [39]); P_M, positive for males, “Males are usually better on this task” – an explicit positive gender stereotype message for males (data from [39]), P_F, positive for females: “Females are usually better on this task” – an explicit positive gender stereotype message for females (data from [39]); N_M, negative for males, “Males are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for males, and N_F, negative for females: “Females are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for females. Vertical bars represent ±SEM.

Mentions: For better understanding the impact of a gender stereotype message on fluctuations in performance, we analyzed the present data (influence of explicitly negative stereotype) in relation to the outcome of earlier work on explicitly positive stereotyping [39]. As no difference in performance occurred between females (t(24) = 0.00, n.s.) and males (t(22) = 0.34, n.s.) in the control groups of both studies, for further analysis we pooled the data for females and for males in both control groups together (Fig. 2).


Gender stereotype susceptibility.

Pavlova MA, Weber S, Simoes E, Sokolov AN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Gender stereotype susceptibility.Scores on the event arrangement (EA) test for female (represented by orange circles) and male (represented by black triangles) participants in the groups with different information given prior to testing: S, standard instruction, gender neutral message (data pooled together from control groups of the present study and [39]); P_M, positive for males, “Males are usually better on this task” – an explicit positive gender stereotype message for males (data from [39]), P_F, positive for females: “Females are usually better on this task” – an explicit positive gender stereotype message for females (data from [39]); N_M, negative for males, “Males are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for males, and N_F, negative for females: “Females are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for females. Vertical bars represent ±SEM.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4269388&req=5

pone-0114802-g002: Gender stereotype susceptibility.Scores on the event arrangement (EA) test for female (represented by orange circles) and male (represented by black triangles) participants in the groups with different information given prior to testing: S, standard instruction, gender neutral message (data pooled together from control groups of the present study and [39]); P_M, positive for males, “Males are usually better on this task” – an explicit positive gender stereotype message for males (data from [39]), P_F, positive for females: “Females are usually better on this task” – an explicit positive gender stereotype message for females (data from [39]); N_M, negative for males, “Males are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for males, and N_F, negative for females: “Females are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for females. Vertical bars represent ±SEM.
Mentions: For better understanding the impact of a gender stereotype message on fluctuations in performance, we analyzed the present data (influence of explicitly negative stereotype) in relation to the outcome of earlier work on explicitly positive stereotyping [39]. As no difference in performance occurred between females (t(24) = 0.00, n.s.) and males (t(22) = 0.34, n.s.) in the control groups of both studies, for further analysis we pooled the data for females and for males in both control groups together (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females.The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping.The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Medical School, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus