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Gender stereotype susceptibility.

Pavlova MA, Weber S, Simoes E, Sokolov AN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females.The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping.The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Medical School, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

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Impact of explicit negative stereotype messages on the event arrangement (EA) test.Test scores for female (represented by orange circles) and male (represented by black triangles) participants in the groups with different information given prior to testing: S, standard instruction, gender neutral message; N_F, negative for females: “Females are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for females, and N_M, negative for males, “Males are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for males. Vertical bars represent ±SEM.
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pone-0114802-g001: Impact of explicit negative stereotype messages on the event arrangement (EA) test.Test scores for female (represented by orange circles) and male (represented by black triangles) participants in the groups with different information given prior to testing: S, standard instruction, gender neutral message; N_F, negative for females: “Females are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for females, and N_M, negative for males, “Males are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for males. Vertical bars represent ±SEM.

Mentions: Fig. 1 shows mean test scores on the EA task for females and males from three separate groups of participants with either standard (gender stereotype neutral), explicit negative for males or explicit negative for females instructions. The individual scores were submitted to a 2×3 two-way analysis of variance, ANOVA (as assessed by the Shapiro-Wilk test, the data were normally distributed) with between-subject factors Gender (female/male) and Message (standard/explicit negative for males/explicit negative for females). The outcome reveals a main effect of Message (F(2,111) = 3.74, p<0.027) and a Message by Gender interaction (F(2,111) = 3.41, p<0.037). As expected, without any prior gender specific information, no gender gap in performance was found (t(21) = 0.06, n.s.; 9.77±2.2, mean±SD, and 9.7±2.98, for females and males, respectively). As seen in Fig. 1, the explicit negative message for males (“Males are worse”) lead to a reduction in performance of males. Yet an unexpected deterioration occurs also in performance of females. This decline happens instead of an expected enhancement in performance of females as the explicit information that males are worse implicitly means that females are usually better on the task. This results in the paradoxical lack of differences in performance between male and female participants of this group (t(41) = 0.05, n.s.; 8.17±2.61 and 8.21±2.64, for females and males, respectively). Finally, as expected, the explicit negative information for females (“Females are worse”) leads to a deterioration in performance of females and an enhancement in performance of males resulting in a highly significant gender effect (10.78±2.52 and 8.24±2.44, for males and females, respectively; t(49) = 3.89, p<0.0003; effect size, Cohen's d = 1.02).


Gender stereotype susceptibility.

Pavlova MA, Weber S, Simoes E, Sokolov AN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Impact of explicit negative stereotype messages on the event arrangement (EA) test.Test scores for female (represented by orange circles) and male (represented by black triangles) participants in the groups with different information given prior to testing: S, standard instruction, gender neutral message; N_F, negative for females: “Females are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for females, and N_M, negative for males, “Males are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for males. Vertical bars represent ±SEM.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4269388&req=5

pone-0114802-g001: Impact of explicit negative stereotype messages on the event arrangement (EA) test.Test scores for female (represented by orange circles) and male (represented by black triangles) participants in the groups with different information given prior to testing: S, standard instruction, gender neutral message; N_F, negative for females: “Females are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for females, and N_M, negative for males, “Males are usually worse on this task” – an explicit negative gender stereotype message for males. Vertical bars represent ±SEM.
Mentions: Fig. 1 shows mean test scores on the EA task for females and males from three separate groups of participants with either standard (gender stereotype neutral), explicit negative for males or explicit negative for females instructions. The individual scores were submitted to a 2×3 two-way analysis of variance, ANOVA (as assessed by the Shapiro-Wilk test, the data were normally distributed) with between-subject factors Gender (female/male) and Message (standard/explicit negative for males/explicit negative for females). The outcome reveals a main effect of Message (F(2,111) = 3.74, p<0.027) and a Message by Gender interaction (F(2,111) = 3.41, p<0.037). As expected, without any prior gender specific information, no gender gap in performance was found (t(21) = 0.06, n.s.; 9.77±2.2, mean±SD, and 9.7±2.98, for females and males, respectively). As seen in Fig. 1, the explicit negative message for males (“Males are worse”) lead to a reduction in performance of males. Yet an unexpected deterioration occurs also in performance of females. This decline happens instead of an expected enhancement in performance of females as the explicit information that males are worse implicitly means that females are usually better on the task. This results in the paradoxical lack of differences in performance between male and female participants of this group (t(41) = 0.05, n.s.; 8.17±2.61 and 8.21±2.64, for females and males, respectively). Finally, as expected, the explicit negative information for females (“Females are worse”) leads to a deterioration in performance of females and an enhancement in performance of males resulting in a highly significant gender effect (10.78±2.52 and 8.24±2.44, for males and females, respectively; t(49) = 3.89, p<0.0003; effect size, Cohen's d = 1.02).

Bottom Line: The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females.The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping.The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, Medical School, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus