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Vibrio parahaemolyticus strengthens their virulence through modulation of cellular reactive oxygen species in vitro.

El-Malah SS, Yang Z, Hu M, Li Q, Pan Z, Jiao X - Front Cell Infect Microbiol (2014)

Bottom Line: Our results show that Vp adheres to cell monolayers and can invade non-phagocytic cells.It also survives and persists in non-phagocytic cells by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS), allowing its replication, and resulting in complete cellular destruction.We conclude that the pathogenicity of Vp is based on its capacities for adhesion and invasion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis/Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University Yangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is one of the emergent food-borne pathogens that are commensally associated with various shellfish species throughout the world. It is strictly environmental and many strains are pathogenic to humans. The virulent strains cause distinct diseases, including wound infections, septicemia, and most commonly, acute gastroenteritis, which is acquired through the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially shellfish. Vp has two type three secretion systems (T3SSs), which triggering its cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity via their effectors. To better understand the pathogenesis of Vp, we established a cell infection model in vitro using a non-phagocytic cell line. Caco-2 cells were infected with different strains of Vp (pandemic and non-pandemic strains) and several parameters of cytotoxicity were measured together with adhesion and invasion indices, which reflect the pathogen's virulence. Our results show that Vp adheres to cell monolayers and can invade non-phagocytic cells. It also survives and persists in non-phagocytic cells by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS), allowing its replication, and resulting in complete cellular destruction. We conclude that the pathogenicity of Vp is based on its capacities for adhesion and invasion. Surprisingly's; enhanced of ROS resistance period could promote the survival of Vp inside the intestinal tract, facilitating tissue infection by repressing the host's oxidative stress response.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

TEM analysis of Caco-2 cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Caco-2 cells were infected with strain (RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, or Vp038) at [MOI] = 100:1 and incubated for 1 or 3 h. The cells were collected for TEM examination. (A–E) Cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, and Vp038, respectively and incubated for 1 h; appear as bacteria surrounded by cell membrane. (F) Arrow indicates replicating bacterium inside a Caco-2 cell. (G–K) Cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, and Vp038, respectively and incubated for 3 h; destruction of cells and changes in their character, and the appearance of bacteria. Scale bar = 2 μm.
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Figure 3: TEM analysis of Caco-2 cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Caco-2 cells were infected with strain (RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, or Vp038) at [MOI] = 100:1 and incubated for 1 or 3 h. The cells were collected for TEM examination. (A–E) Cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, and Vp038, respectively and incubated for 1 h; appear as bacteria surrounded by cell membrane. (F) Arrow indicates replicating bacterium inside a Caco-2 cell. (G–K) Cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, and Vp038, respectively and incubated for 3 h; destruction of cells and changes in their character, and the appearance of bacteria. Scale bar = 2 μm.

Mentions: Surprisingly, Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were able to replicate inside the non-phagocytic cells (host cells), as observed after 1 h, which was confirmed by TEM examination of the bacterially infected cells (Figures 3A–F).


Vibrio parahaemolyticus strengthens their virulence through modulation of cellular reactive oxygen species in vitro.

El-Malah SS, Yang Z, Hu M, Li Q, Pan Z, Jiao X - Front Cell Infect Microbiol (2014)

TEM analysis of Caco-2 cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Caco-2 cells were infected with strain (RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, or Vp038) at [MOI] = 100:1 and incubated for 1 or 3 h. The cells were collected for TEM examination. (A–E) Cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, and Vp038, respectively and incubated for 1 h; appear as bacteria surrounded by cell membrane. (F) Arrow indicates replicating bacterium inside a Caco-2 cell. (G–K) Cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, and Vp038, respectively and incubated for 3 h; destruction of cells and changes in their character, and the appearance of bacteria. Scale bar = 2 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4269196&req=5

Figure 3: TEM analysis of Caco-2 cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Caco-2 cells were infected with strain (RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, or Vp038) at [MOI] = 100:1 and incubated for 1 or 3 h. The cells were collected for TEM examination. (A–E) Cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, and Vp038, respectively and incubated for 1 h; appear as bacteria surrounded by cell membrane. (F) Arrow indicates replicating bacterium inside a Caco-2 cell. (G–K) Cells infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD, Vp005, Vp024, Vp029, and Vp038, respectively and incubated for 3 h; destruction of cells and changes in their character, and the appearance of bacteria. Scale bar = 2 μm.
Mentions: Surprisingly, Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were able to replicate inside the non-phagocytic cells (host cells), as observed after 1 h, which was confirmed by TEM examination of the bacterially infected cells (Figures 3A–F).

Bottom Line: Our results show that Vp adheres to cell monolayers and can invade non-phagocytic cells.It also survives and persists in non-phagocytic cells by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS), allowing its replication, and resulting in complete cellular destruction.We conclude that the pathogenicity of Vp is based on its capacities for adhesion and invasion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis/Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University Yangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is one of the emergent food-borne pathogens that are commensally associated with various shellfish species throughout the world. It is strictly environmental and many strains are pathogenic to humans. The virulent strains cause distinct diseases, including wound infections, septicemia, and most commonly, acute gastroenteritis, which is acquired through the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially shellfish. Vp has two type three secretion systems (T3SSs), which triggering its cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity via their effectors. To better understand the pathogenesis of Vp, we established a cell infection model in vitro using a non-phagocytic cell line. Caco-2 cells were infected with different strains of Vp (pandemic and non-pandemic strains) and several parameters of cytotoxicity were measured together with adhesion and invasion indices, which reflect the pathogen's virulence. Our results show that Vp adheres to cell monolayers and can invade non-phagocytic cells. It also survives and persists in non-phagocytic cells by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS), allowing its replication, and resulting in complete cellular destruction. We conclude that the pathogenicity of Vp is based on its capacities for adhesion and invasion. Surprisingly's; enhanced of ROS resistance period could promote the survival of Vp inside the intestinal tract, facilitating tissue infection by repressing the host's oxidative stress response.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus