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Anatomical and functional plasticity in early blind individuals and the mixture of experts architecture.

Bock AS, Fine I - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain.We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed.Finally we suggest a framework-cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts-which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed. Finally we suggest a framework-cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts-which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Inter-hemispheric functional correlations. Coronal (A) and axial (B) views of inter-hemispheric functional correlations. Increases in functional correlations as a result of early blindness or anophthalmia are shown in red, decreases in functional correlations are shown in blue. Some lines represent findings from multiple studies.
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Figure 3: Inter-hemispheric functional correlations. Coronal (A) and axial (B) views of inter-hemispheric functional correlations. Increases in functional correlations as a result of early blindness or anophthalmia are shown in red, decreases in functional correlations are shown in blue. Some lines represent findings from multiple studies.

Mentions: In contrast to the relatively small effect on ipsilateral occipital connectivity, a variety of studies have shown that early blindness (Bedny et al., 2011; Qin et al., 2013; Burton et al., 2014) and anophthalmia (Watkins et al., 2012) results in a decrease in inter-hemispheric functional correlations for resting state signals within occipital cortex between both homologous and non-homologous areas, with the difference between subject groups tending to increase across the visual hierarchy (Figure 3B: CAL ↔ CAL, LO, MOG, MT, SOG; LO ↔ LO; MT ↔ MT; SOG ↔ SOG, IOG). This decrease in correlations across entire areas may be accompanied by some topographical disruption: Butt et al. (2013) found a small weakening of the topographic organization of V1 inter-hemispheric correlations in early blind individuals.


Anatomical and functional plasticity in early blind individuals and the mixture of experts architecture.

Bock AS, Fine I - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Inter-hemispheric functional correlations. Coronal (A) and axial (B) views of inter-hemispheric functional correlations. Increases in functional correlations as a result of early blindness or anophthalmia are shown in red, decreases in functional correlations are shown in blue. Some lines represent findings from multiple studies.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4269126&req=5

Figure 3: Inter-hemispheric functional correlations. Coronal (A) and axial (B) views of inter-hemispheric functional correlations. Increases in functional correlations as a result of early blindness or anophthalmia are shown in red, decreases in functional correlations are shown in blue. Some lines represent findings from multiple studies.
Mentions: In contrast to the relatively small effect on ipsilateral occipital connectivity, a variety of studies have shown that early blindness (Bedny et al., 2011; Qin et al., 2013; Burton et al., 2014) and anophthalmia (Watkins et al., 2012) results in a decrease in inter-hemispheric functional correlations for resting state signals within occipital cortex between both homologous and non-homologous areas, with the difference between subject groups tending to increase across the visual hierarchy (Figure 3B: CAL ↔ CAL, LO, MOG, MT, SOG; LO ↔ LO; MT ↔ MT; SOG ↔ SOG, IOG). This decrease in correlations across entire areas may be accompanied by some topographical disruption: Butt et al. (2013) found a small weakening of the topographic organization of V1 inter-hemispheric correlations in early blind individuals.

Bottom Line: As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain.We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed.Finally we suggest a framework-cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts-which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
As described elsewhere in this special issue, recent advances in neuroimaging over the last decade have led to a rapid expansion in our knowledge of anatomical and functional correlations within the normal and abnormal human brain. Here, we review how early blindness has been used as a model system for examining the role of visual experience in the development of anatomical connections and functional responses. We discuss how lack of power in group comparisons may provide a potential explanation for why extensive anatomical changes in cortico-cortical connectivity are not observed. Finally we suggest a framework-cortical specialization via hierarchical mixtures of experts-which offers some promise in reconciling a wide range of functional and anatomical data.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus