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Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction.

Wang SS, Wang F, Tan SJ, Wang MX, Sui N, Zhang XS - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization.The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development.These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an, China.

ABSTRACT
The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14-16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

In situ hybridization patterns of GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084. (A,B)in situ hybridization analysis of GRMZM2G165083 expression with antisense probes; (D,E)in situ hybridization analysis of GRMZM2G097084 expression with antisense probes; (C,F) sense probes. All micrographs show longitudinal sections of maize embryo sacs. (G) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084 transcript levels in maize tissues. en, egg nucleus; a, antipodal cells; Rt, root; St, stem; Lf, leaves; MP, mature pollen; Ov, ovary. Scale bars = 20 μm.
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Figure 8: In situ hybridization patterns of GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084. (A,B)in situ hybridization analysis of GRMZM2G165083 expression with antisense probes; (D,E)in situ hybridization analysis of GRMZM2G097084 expression with antisense probes; (C,F) sense probes. All micrographs show longitudinal sections of maize embryo sacs. (G) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084 transcript levels in maize tissues. en, egg nucleus; a, antipodal cells; Rt, root; St, stem; Lf, leaves; MP, mature pollen; Ov, ovary. Scale bars = 20 μm.

Mentions: Animal toxins have been shown to modulate K+ channels, Na+ channels, or Ca2+-activated K+ channels either as pore blockers or as gating modifiers (Mouhat et al., 2004). Until now, there are a few studies on the CRPs with a Scorpion toxin-like domain (Toxin_3 domain) in plants. AsG255 was expressed abundantly in nodules in Astragalus sinicus, and its protein was identified to contain a scorpion toxin-like domain at the C-terminus, which might function as the common signaling component involved in the plants' perception of soil microorganisms (Chou et al., 2006). Five genes encoding CRPs with toxin domains were present in the EPGs dataset (GRMZM2G045082, GRMZM2G165083, GRMZM2G097084, AC199577.4, and AC209356.4). All of these genes encoded proteins with a Toxin_3 domain. Two genes (GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084) were selected for in situ hybridization analysis in mature embryo sacs. The GRMZM2G165083 mRNA accumulated in the egg cell, central cell, and antipodal cells (Figures 8A–C). GRMZM2G097084 transcripts were detected in the embryo sac, and also in the integuments around the micropyle (Figures 8D–F). Semi-quantitative PCR analyses confirmed that the two genes were preferentially or specifically expressed in ovaries (Figure 8G). Further analysis showed the transcript levels of GRMZM2G165083 and AC209356.4 were higher in the ESP than in the ES in DEGs (Table 2). Together, these results suggested that toxin peptides might function in embryo sac development and/or in pollen tube guidance in maize.


Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction.

Wang SS, Wang F, Tan SJ, Wang MX, Sui N, Zhang XS - Front Plant Sci (2014)

In situ hybridization patterns of GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084. (A,B)in situ hybridization analysis of GRMZM2G165083 expression with antisense probes; (D,E)in situ hybridization analysis of GRMZM2G097084 expression with antisense probes; (C,F) sense probes. All micrographs show longitudinal sections of maize embryo sacs. (G) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084 transcript levels in maize tissues. en, egg nucleus; a, antipodal cells; Rt, root; St, stem; Lf, leaves; MP, mature pollen; Ov, ovary. Scale bars = 20 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4269116&req=5

Figure 8: In situ hybridization patterns of GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084. (A,B)in situ hybridization analysis of GRMZM2G165083 expression with antisense probes; (D,E)in situ hybridization analysis of GRMZM2G097084 expression with antisense probes; (C,F) sense probes. All micrographs show longitudinal sections of maize embryo sacs. (G) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084 transcript levels in maize tissues. en, egg nucleus; a, antipodal cells; Rt, root; St, stem; Lf, leaves; MP, mature pollen; Ov, ovary. Scale bars = 20 μm.
Mentions: Animal toxins have been shown to modulate K+ channels, Na+ channels, or Ca2+-activated K+ channels either as pore blockers or as gating modifiers (Mouhat et al., 2004). Until now, there are a few studies on the CRPs with a Scorpion toxin-like domain (Toxin_3 domain) in plants. AsG255 was expressed abundantly in nodules in Astragalus sinicus, and its protein was identified to contain a scorpion toxin-like domain at the C-terminus, which might function as the common signaling component involved in the plants' perception of soil microorganisms (Chou et al., 2006). Five genes encoding CRPs with toxin domains were present in the EPGs dataset (GRMZM2G045082, GRMZM2G165083, GRMZM2G097084, AC199577.4, and AC209356.4). All of these genes encoded proteins with a Toxin_3 domain. Two genes (GRMZM2G165083 and GRMZM2G097084) were selected for in situ hybridization analysis in mature embryo sacs. The GRMZM2G165083 mRNA accumulated in the egg cell, central cell, and antipodal cells (Figures 8A–C). GRMZM2G097084 transcripts were detected in the embryo sac, and also in the integuments around the micropyle (Figures 8D–F). Semi-quantitative PCR analyses confirmed that the two genes were preferentially or specifically expressed in ovaries (Figure 8G). Further analysis showed the transcript levels of GRMZM2G165083 and AC209356.4 were higher in the ESP than in the ES in DEGs (Table 2). Together, these results suggested that toxin peptides might function in embryo sac development and/or in pollen tube guidance in maize.

Bottom Line: Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization.The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development.These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an, China.

ABSTRACT
The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14-16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus