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Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction.

Wang SS, Wang F, Tan SJ, Wang MX, Sui N, Zhang XS - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization.The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development.These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an, China.

ABSTRACT
The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14-16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of genes involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation among DEGs. Number of genes in each category is shown on the left. Color scales (right) show relative transcript abundance of each gene (log2-transformed RPKM values) in the given categories.
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Figure 6: Distribution of genes involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation among DEGs. Number of genes in each category is shown on the left. Color scales (right) show relative transcript abundance of each gene (log2-transformed RPKM values) in the given categories.

Mentions: The 172 genes involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation were further classified using MapMan software (Figure 6, Additional file 12). This analysis showed that the gene terms related to post-translational modification (26.1%), LRR-XI RLK (13.4%), DUF26 RLK (12.2%), RLCK VII (7.5%) and LRR-III RLK (5.2%), were overrepresented. Furthermore, 113 genes encoding receptor-like kinases (RLKs) were identified. These genes were further classified into 22 categories (Figure 6). The largest category consisted of genes encoding LRR-XI RLKs. These kinases are involved in various aspects of meristem development and nodulation (Brand et al., 2000; Krusell et al., 2002; Schnabel et al., 2005). Arabidopsis PEPR1 is a typical LRR receptor kinase with an extracellular LRR domain and an intracellular protein kinase domain. It belongs to the LRR-XI subfamily (Shiu et al., 2004). PEPR2 shares 76% amino acid similarity with PEPR1 (Yamaguchi et al., 2006). Both PERP1 and PERP2 could recognize damage associated with molecular patterns and active innate immunity pathways (Yamaguchi et al., 2006, 2010; Krol et al., 2010). Previous study proposed that conserved molecular components are involved in both pollen tube reception and fungal invasion in Arabidopsis (Kessler et al., 2010). In our data, the expression levels of 24 LRR-XI RLKs were significantly altered before and after pollination (Additional file 12). One of them, GRMZM2G428554 was homologous to PEPR1, implying that LRR-XI RKLs might be involved in the interaction between the embryo sac and the pollen tube in maize.


Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction.

Wang SS, Wang F, Tan SJ, Wang MX, Sui N, Zhang XS - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Distribution of genes involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation among DEGs. Number of genes in each category is shown on the left. Color scales (right) show relative transcript abundance of each gene (log2-transformed RPKM values) in the given categories.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4269116&req=5

Figure 6: Distribution of genes involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation among DEGs. Number of genes in each category is shown on the left. Color scales (right) show relative transcript abundance of each gene (log2-transformed RPKM values) in the given categories.
Mentions: The 172 genes involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation were further classified using MapMan software (Figure 6, Additional file 12). This analysis showed that the gene terms related to post-translational modification (26.1%), LRR-XI RLK (13.4%), DUF26 RLK (12.2%), RLCK VII (7.5%) and LRR-III RLK (5.2%), were overrepresented. Furthermore, 113 genes encoding receptor-like kinases (RLKs) were identified. These genes were further classified into 22 categories (Figure 6). The largest category consisted of genes encoding LRR-XI RLKs. These kinases are involved in various aspects of meristem development and nodulation (Brand et al., 2000; Krusell et al., 2002; Schnabel et al., 2005). Arabidopsis PEPR1 is a typical LRR receptor kinase with an extracellular LRR domain and an intracellular protein kinase domain. It belongs to the LRR-XI subfamily (Shiu et al., 2004). PEPR2 shares 76% amino acid similarity with PEPR1 (Yamaguchi et al., 2006). Both PERP1 and PERP2 could recognize damage associated with molecular patterns and active innate immunity pathways (Yamaguchi et al., 2006, 2010; Krol et al., 2010). Previous study proposed that conserved molecular components are involved in both pollen tube reception and fungal invasion in Arabidopsis (Kessler et al., 2010). In our data, the expression levels of 24 LRR-XI RLKs were significantly altered before and after pollination (Additional file 12). One of them, GRMZM2G428554 was homologous to PEPR1, implying that LRR-XI RKLs might be involved in the interaction between the embryo sac and the pollen tube in maize.

Bottom Line: Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization.The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development.These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an, China.

ABSTRACT
The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14-16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus