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Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction.

Wang SS, Wang F, Tan SJ, Wang MX, Sui N, Zhang XS - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization.The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development.These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an, China.

ABSTRACT
The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14-16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Abundance of TF families among DEGs. Number of genes in each category is shown on the left. Color scales (right) show relative transcript abundance of each gene (log2-transformed RPKM values) in the given categories.
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Figure 4: Abundance of TF families among DEGs. Number of genes in each category is shown on the left. Color scales (right) show relative transcript abundance of each gene (log2-transformed RPKM values) in the given categories.

Mentions: Transcription factors (TFs) are a class of proteins that regulate gene transcription and expression by recognizing and binding to cis-acting elements in the promoters of the target genes. Among the 432 genes involved in RNA binding and processing, and transcription, 380 encoded putative TFs. The most abundant TF families were the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2/EREBP), WRKY, chromatin remodeling, homeobox protein (HB), v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB), and mcm1-agamous-deficiens serum response factor (MADS) families (Figure 4, Additional file 9). Many members of these subfamilies are known to play important roles in reproductive processes. For example, the AP2/ERF TFs were shown to regulate plant hormone responses (Nakano et al., 2006; Licausi et al., 2010; Sharoni et al., 2011). Both auxin and ethylene regulate ovary and ovule development, and coordinate the development of male and female gametophytes (Zhang and O'Neill, 1993). MYB98, which is specifically expressed in the synergid cells, was shown to have an essential role in pollen tube guidance and in the formation of the filiform apparatus (Kasahara et al., 2005). The MADS-box transcription factor AGL23 was shown to control female gametophyte and embryo development in Arabidopsis (Colombo et al., 2008). In addition, AtCCG, which is expressed in the central cell of the ovule, might act as TF to guide the pollen tube to the micropyle in Arabidopsis (Chen et al., 2007). In our data, the transcript level of the AtCCG-homolog GRMZM2G307720 was significantly lower in the ESP than in the ES. Considering pollination-regulated the expression of TF genes, we suggest that these genes might function in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction in maize.


Transcript profiles of maize embryo sacs and preliminary identification of genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction.

Wang SS, Wang F, Tan SJ, Wang MX, Sui N, Zhang XS - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Abundance of TF families among DEGs. Number of genes in each category is shown on the left. Color scales (right) show relative transcript abundance of each gene (log2-transformed RPKM values) in the given categories.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4269116&req=5

Figure 4: Abundance of TF families among DEGs. Number of genes in each category is shown on the left. Color scales (right) show relative transcript abundance of each gene (log2-transformed RPKM values) in the given categories.
Mentions: Transcription factors (TFs) are a class of proteins that regulate gene transcription and expression by recognizing and binding to cis-acting elements in the promoters of the target genes. Among the 432 genes involved in RNA binding and processing, and transcription, 380 encoded putative TFs. The most abundant TF families were the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2/EREBP), WRKY, chromatin remodeling, homeobox protein (HB), v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB), and mcm1-agamous-deficiens serum response factor (MADS) families (Figure 4, Additional file 9). Many members of these subfamilies are known to play important roles in reproductive processes. For example, the AP2/ERF TFs were shown to regulate plant hormone responses (Nakano et al., 2006; Licausi et al., 2010; Sharoni et al., 2011). Both auxin and ethylene regulate ovary and ovule development, and coordinate the development of male and female gametophytes (Zhang and O'Neill, 1993). MYB98, which is specifically expressed in the synergid cells, was shown to have an essential role in pollen tube guidance and in the formation of the filiform apparatus (Kasahara et al., 2005). The MADS-box transcription factor AGL23 was shown to control female gametophyte and embryo development in Arabidopsis (Colombo et al., 2008). In addition, AtCCG, which is expressed in the central cell of the ovule, might act as TF to guide the pollen tube to the micropyle in Arabidopsis (Chen et al., 2007). In our data, the transcript level of the AtCCG-homolog GRMZM2G307720 was significantly lower in the ESP than in the ES. Considering pollination-regulated the expression of TF genes, we suggest that these genes might function in the embryo sac–pollen tube interaction in maize.

Bottom Line: Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization.The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development.These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University Tai'an, China.

ABSTRACT
The embryo sac, the female gametophyte of flowering plants, plays important roles in the pollination and fertilization process. Maize (Zea mays L.) is a model monocot, but little is known about the interactions between its embryo sac and the pollen tube. In this study, we compared the transcript profiles of mature embryo sacs, mature embryo sacs 14-16 h after pollination, and mature nucelli. Comparing the transcript profiles of the embryo sacs before and after the entry of the pollen tube, we identified 3467 differentially expressed transcripts (3382 differentially expressed genes; DEGs). The DEGs were grouped into 22 functional categories. Among the DEGs, 221 genes were induced upon the entry of the pollen tube, and many of them encoded proteins involved in RNA binding, processing, and transcription, signaling, miscellaneous enzyme family processes, and lipid metabolism processes. Genes in the DEG dataset were grouped into 17 classes in a gene ontology enrichment analysis. The DEGs included many genes encoding proteins involved in protein amino acid phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination, implying that these processes might play important roles in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction. Additionally, our analyses indicate that the expression of 112 genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) is induced during pollination and fertilization. The CRPs likely regulate pollen tube guidance and embryo sac development. These results provide important information on the genes involved in the embryo sac-pollen tube interaction in maize.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus