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Blinded by magic: eye-movements reveal the misdirection of attention.

Barnhart AS, Goldinger SD - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin.Nevertheless, we observed high rates of IB.Unlike prior research, eye-movements during the critical event showed different patterns for participants, depending upon whether they saw the moving coin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Research Lab, Department of Psychological Sciences, Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, AZ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies (e.g., Kuhn and Tatler, 2005) have suggested that magic tricks can provide a powerful and compelling domain for the study of attention and perception. In particular, many stage illusions involve attentional misdirection, guiding the observer's gaze to a salient object or event, while another critical action, such as sleight of hand, is taking place. Even if the critical action takes place in full view, people typically fail to see it due to inattentional blindness (IB). In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin. Appropriately deployed attention would allow participants to detect the "secret" event that underlies the illusion (a moving coin), as it happens in full view and is visible for approximately 550 ms. Nevertheless, we observed high rates of IB. Unlike prior research, eye-movements during the critical event showed different patterns for participants, depending upon whether they saw the moving coin. The results also showed that when participants watched several "practice" videos without any moving coin, they became far more likely to detect the coin in the critical trial. Taken together, the findings are consistent with perceptual load theory (Lavie and Tsal, 1994).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fixation patterns during the critical period as a function of the direction of coin movement and inattentional blindness.
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Figure 3: Fixation patterns during the critical period as a function of the direction of coin movement and inattentional blindness.

Mentions: Next, we examined the proportion of fixations falling upon five different regions of interest (ROIs) during the entire 550-ms critical period when the coin was visibly moving across the screen in the IB trial: the napkin covering the coin's starting position, the napkin covering the coin's end point, the space between the napkins (through which the coin was moving), the cup which was being displayed to the camera, and the magician's face (which was partially occluded by the cup). Figure 3 depicts the pattern of fixations (shown as a heat map) during the critical period as a function of coin movement direction and IB, and Table 1 shows the probability of fixating each ROI as a function of Preview Condition and IB. We conducted a multivariate ANOVA on the proportions of fixations falling upon each ROI, with between-subjects factors Preview (no-preview, preview) and IB (blind, not blind). The omnibus MANOVA did not produce any effects related to Preview, but there was a reliable main effect of IB, F(5, 59) = 2.41, p = 0.047, η2p = 0.17. This main effect was driven by differences in two ROIs. IB participants were significantly more likely to fixate the cup during the critical period, F(1, 63) = 7.17, p = 0.009, η2p = 0.06. Furthermore, IB participants were significantly less likely to fixate the space through which the coin moved, F(1, 63) = 4.15, p = 0.046, η2p = 0.06. No other fixation patterns differed significantly as a consequence of IB.


Blinded by magic: eye-movements reveal the misdirection of attention.

Barnhart AS, Goldinger SD - Front Psychol (2014)

Fixation patterns during the critical period as a function of the direction of coin movement and inattentional blindness.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4269107&req=5

Figure 3: Fixation patterns during the critical period as a function of the direction of coin movement and inattentional blindness.
Mentions: Next, we examined the proportion of fixations falling upon five different regions of interest (ROIs) during the entire 550-ms critical period when the coin was visibly moving across the screen in the IB trial: the napkin covering the coin's starting position, the napkin covering the coin's end point, the space between the napkins (through which the coin was moving), the cup which was being displayed to the camera, and the magician's face (which was partially occluded by the cup). Figure 3 depicts the pattern of fixations (shown as a heat map) during the critical period as a function of coin movement direction and IB, and Table 1 shows the probability of fixating each ROI as a function of Preview Condition and IB. We conducted a multivariate ANOVA on the proportions of fixations falling upon each ROI, with between-subjects factors Preview (no-preview, preview) and IB (blind, not blind). The omnibus MANOVA did not produce any effects related to Preview, but there was a reliable main effect of IB, F(5, 59) = 2.41, p = 0.047, η2p = 0.17. This main effect was driven by differences in two ROIs. IB participants were significantly more likely to fixate the cup during the critical period, F(1, 63) = 7.17, p = 0.009, η2p = 0.06. Furthermore, IB participants were significantly less likely to fixate the space through which the coin moved, F(1, 63) = 4.15, p = 0.046, η2p = 0.06. No other fixation patterns differed significantly as a consequence of IB.

Bottom Line: In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin.Nevertheless, we observed high rates of IB.Unlike prior research, eye-movements during the critical event showed different patterns for participants, depending upon whether they saw the moving coin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cognitive Research Lab, Department of Psychological Sciences, Northern Arizona University Flagstaff, AZ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies (e.g., Kuhn and Tatler, 2005) have suggested that magic tricks can provide a powerful and compelling domain for the study of attention and perception. In particular, many stage illusions involve attentional misdirection, guiding the observer's gaze to a salient object or event, while another critical action, such as sleight of hand, is taking place. Even if the critical action takes place in full view, people typically fail to see it due to inattentional blindness (IB). In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin. Appropriately deployed attention would allow participants to detect the "secret" event that underlies the illusion (a moving coin), as it happens in full view and is visible for approximately 550 ms. Nevertheless, we observed high rates of IB. Unlike prior research, eye-movements during the critical event showed different patterns for participants, depending upon whether they saw the moving coin. The results also showed that when participants watched several "practice" videos without any moving coin, they became far more likely to detect the coin in the critical trial. Taken together, the findings are consistent with perceptual load theory (Lavie and Tsal, 1994).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus