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Estimating dynamic changes of tissue attenuation coefficient during high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment.

Rahimian S, Tavakkoli J - J Ther Ultrasound (2013)

Bottom Line: After the treatment, Δβ and Δα 0 values gradually decreased, accompanied by fade-out of hyperechoic spots in the B-mode images.At 10 min after the treatment, they reached values in ranges 0.75-1 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1-1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable within those ranges.This increase was not accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated the dynamic changes of tissue attenuation coefficients before, during, and after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment at different total acoustic powers (TAP) in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue. It further assessed the reliability of employing changes in tissue attenuation coefficient parameters as potential indicators of tissue thermal damage.

Methods: Two-dimensional pulse-echo radio frequency (RF) data were acquired before, during, and after HIFU exposure to estimate changes in least squares attenuation coefficient slope (Δβ) and attenuation coefficient intercept (Δα 0). Using the acquired RF data, Δβ and Δα 0 images, along with conventional B-mode ultrasound images, were constructed. The dynamic changes of Δβ and Δα 0, averaged in the region of interest, were correlated with B-mode images obtained during the HIFU treatment process.

Results: At a HIFU exposure duration of 40 s and various HIFU intensities (737-1,068 W/cm(2)), Δβ and Δα 0 increased rapidly to values in the ranges 1.5-2.5 dB/(MHz.cm) and 4-5 dB/cm, respectively. This rapid increase was accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images. Bubble activities appeared as strong hyperechoic regions in the B-mode images and caused fluctuations in the estimated Δβ and Δα 0 values. After the treatment, Δβ and Δα 0 values gradually decreased, accompanied by fade-out of hyperechoic spots in the B-mode images. At 10 min after the treatment, they reached values in ranges 0.75-1 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1-1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable within those ranges. At a long HIFU exposure duration of around 10 min and low HIFU intensity (117 W/cm(2)), Δβ and Δα 0 gradually increased to values of 2.2 dB/(MHz.cm) and 2.2 dB/cm, respectively. This increase was not accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images. After HIFU treatment, Δβ and Δα 0 gradually decreased to values of 1.8 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable at those values.

Conclusions: Δβ and Δα 0 estimations were both potentially reliable indicators of tissue thermal damage. In addition, Δβ and Δα 0 images both had significantly higher contrast-to-speckle ratios compared to the conventional B-mode images and outperformed the B-mode images in detecting HIFU thermal lesions at all investigated TAPs and exposure durations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dynamic changes of Δα0 in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue during HIFU treatment. (A) A total of four lesions were created at every TAP. Δα0 values for each lesion were estimated by spatially averaging the Δα0 values in the ROI, and then those values were further averaged with each other generating an average profile for each TAP value. For monitoring duration of 10 min, the duty cycle was 77%, resulting in TAP values of 34, 37, 39, 44, and 49 W, for a HIFU treatment time of 40 s. (B) Dynamic changes of Δα0 in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue during HIFU treatment presented without the error bars.
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Figure 19: Dynamic changes of Δα0 in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue during HIFU treatment. (A) A total of four lesions were created at every TAP. Δα0 values for each lesion were estimated by spatially averaging the Δα0 values in the ROI, and then those values were further averaged with each other generating an average profile for each TAP value. For monitoring duration of 10 min, the duty cycle was 77%, resulting in TAP values of 34, 37, 39, 44, and 49 W, for a HIFU treatment time of 40 s. (B) Dynamic changes of Δα0 in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue during HIFU treatment presented without the error bars.

Mentions: Figure 19 shows the dynamic changes of attenuation intercept as a result of HIFU treatment in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue at different TAP values. As evident in Figure 19, at all the investigated TAP values, Δα0 rose very rapidly in the first 20 s of treatment, from 0 to somewhere in the range of 4–5 dB/cm and then maintained its value within that range with some fluctuations over the next 20 s to the end of HIFU treatment at 40 s. After the end of treatment, Δα0 gradually decreased, and after10 min, the Δα0 algorithm resulted in values in the range of 1–1.6 dB/cm.


Estimating dynamic changes of tissue attenuation coefficient during high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment.

Rahimian S, Tavakkoli J - J Ther Ultrasound (2013)

Dynamic changes of Δα0 in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue during HIFU treatment. (A) A total of four lesions were created at every TAP. Δα0 values for each lesion were estimated by spatially averaging the Δα0 values in the ROI, and then those values were further averaged with each other generating an average profile for each TAP value. For monitoring duration of 10 min, the duty cycle was 77%, resulting in TAP values of 34, 37, 39, 44, and 49 W, for a HIFU treatment time of 40 s. (B) Dynamic changes of Δα0 in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue during HIFU treatment presented without the error bars.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4265947&req=5

Figure 19: Dynamic changes of Δα0 in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue during HIFU treatment. (A) A total of four lesions were created at every TAP. Δα0 values for each lesion were estimated by spatially averaging the Δα0 values in the ROI, and then those values were further averaged with each other generating an average profile for each TAP value. For monitoring duration of 10 min, the duty cycle was 77%, resulting in TAP values of 34, 37, 39, 44, and 49 W, for a HIFU treatment time of 40 s. (B) Dynamic changes of Δα0 in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue during HIFU treatment presented without the error bars.
Mentions: Figure 19 shows the dynamic changes of attenuation intercept as a result of HIFU treatment in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue at different TAP values. As evident in Figure 19, at all the investigated TAP values, Δα0 rose very rapidly in the first 20 s of treatment, from 0 to somewhere in the range of 4–5 dB/cm and then maintained its value within that range with some fluctuations over the next 20 s to the end of HIFU treatment at 40 s. After the end of treatment, Δα0 gradually decreased, and after10 min, the Δα0 algorithm resulted in values in the range of 1–1.6 dB/cm.

Bottom Line: After the treatment, Δβ and Δα 0 values gradually decreased, accompanied by fade-out of hyperechoic spots in the B-mode images.At 10 min after the treatment, they reached values in ranges 0.75-1 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1-1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable within those ranges.This increase was not accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study investigated the dynamic changes of tissue attenuation coefficients before, during, and after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment at different total acoustic powers (TAP) in ex vivo porcine muscle tissue. It further assessed the reliability of employing changes in tissue attenuation coefficient parameters as potential indicators of tissue thermal damage.

Methods: Two-dimensional pulse-echo radio frequency (RF) data were acquired before, during, and after HIFU exposure to estimate changes in least squares attenuation coefficient slope (Δβ) and attenuation coefficient intercept (Δα 0). Using the acquired RF data, Δβ and Δα 0 images, along with conventional B-mode ultrasound images, were constructed. The dynamic changes of Δβ and Δα 0, averaged in the region of interest, were correlated with B-mode images obtained during the HIFU treatment process.

Results: At a HIFU exposure duration of 40 s and various HIFU intensities (737-1,068 W/cm(2)), Δβ and Δα 0 increased rapidly to values in the ranges 1.5-2.5 dB/(MHz.cm) and 4-5 dB/cm, respectively. This rapid increase was accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images. Bubble activities appeared as strong hyperechoic regions in the B-mode images and caused fluctuations in the estimated Δβ and Δα 0 values. After the treatment, Δβ and Δα 0 values gradually decreased, accompanied by fade-out of hyperechoic spots in the B-mode images. At 10 min after the treatment, they reached values in ranges 0.75-1 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1-1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable within those ranges. At a long HIFU exposure duration of around 10 min and low HIFU intensity (117 W/cm(2)), Δβ and Δα 0 gradually increased to values of 2.2 dB/(MHz.cm) and 2.2 dB/cm, respectively. This increase was not accompanied with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode images. After HIFU treatment, Δβ and Δα 0 gradually decreased to values of 1.8 dB/(MHz.cm) and 1.5 dB/cm, respectively, and remained stable at those values.

Conclusions: Δβ and Δα 0 estimations were both potentially reliable indicators of tissue thermal damage. In addition, Δβ and Δα 0 images both had significantly higher contrast-to-speckle ratios compared to the conventional B-mode images and outperformed the B-mode images in detecting HIFU thermal lesions at all investigated TAPs and exposure durations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus