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Nucleic acid aptamer-guided cancer therapeutics and diagnostics: the next generation of cancer medicine.

Xiang D, Shigdar S, Qiao G, Wang T, Kouzani AZ, Zhou SF, Kong L, Li Y, Pu C, Duan W - Theranostics (2015)

Bottom Line: Conventional anticancer therapies, such as chemo- and/or radio-therapy are often unable to completely eradicate cancers due to abnormal tumor microenvironment, as well as increased drug/radiation resistance.More effective therapeutic strategies for overcoming these obstacles are urgently in demand.This review is to update the current progress of aptamer-based cancer diagnosis and aptamer-mediated active targeting for cancer therapy in vivo, exploring the potential of this novel form of targeted cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. School of Medicine, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Conventional anticancer therapies, such as chemo- and/or radio-therapy are often unable to completely eradicate cancers due to abnormal tumor microenvironment, as well as increased drug/radiation resistance. More effective therapeutic strategies for overcoming these obstacles are urgently in demand. Aptamers, as chemical antibodies that bind to targets with high affinity and specificity, are a promising new and novel agent for both cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Aptamer-based cancer cell targeting facilitates the development of active targeting in which aptamer-mediated drug delivery could provide promising anticancer outcomes. This review is to update the current progress of aptamer-based cancer diagnosis and aptamer-mediated active targeting for cancer therapy in vivo, exploring the potential of this novel form of targeted cancer therapy.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Aptamer-guided nano-drugs and their applications. (A) Schematic illustration of aptamer functionalised and drug-encapsulated nanoparticles. (B) Representative results from studies by Farokhzad et al. on A10 RNA aptamer functionalised Dtxl-encapsulated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (Dtxl-NP-Apt) and anticancer efficacy in vivo. Even a single intratumoral administration of Dtxl-NP-Apt is significantly more efficient in tumor reduction as evident from the ~6.5-fold smaller tumor volume than that in mice treated with the controls (saline, NP, or Dtxl) (a and b) and improved survival (109 days vs. 73 days in Dtxl-NP group) (c and d). Reproduced from Ref. 113, Copyright (2006), with permission from National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A..
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Figure 4: Aptamer-guided nano-drugs and their applications. (A) Schematic illustration of aptamer functionalised and drug-encapsulated nanoparticles. (B) Representative results from studies by Farokhzad et al. on A10 RNA aptamer functionalised Dtxl-encapsulated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (Dtxl-NP-Apt) and anticancer efficacy in vivo. Even a single intratumoral administration of Dtxl-NP-Apt is significantly more efficient in tumor reduction as evident from the ~6.5-fold smaller tumor volume than that in mice treated with the controls (saline, NP, or Dtxl) (a and b) and improved survival (109 days vs. 73 days in Dtxl-NP group) (c and d). Reproduced from Ref. 113, Copyright (2006), with permission from National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A..

Mentions: The past decade has witnessed promising advances in the synthesis and characterization of various nano-materials, which have been optimized for anti-cancer drug delivery vehicles 105. The hybrid aptamer-nanoparticle system significantly enhanced cancer-specific cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo 106, 107 (Fig. 4). Aptamer-guided nano therapeutics aid in circumventing pathophysiology barriers to enhance both the uptake and retention of drugs by tumor cells, leading to improved therapeutic efficacy 70, 108. There are four major merits when nanoparticles are surface functionalized by aptamers for targeted cancer drug delivery 109: 1) the specific recognition of aptamers to targets enables a targeted detection or binding to cancer cells; 2) the straightforward synthesis and chemical modification of aptamers can boost the translation of aptamers into clinical practice; 3) the biocompatible nanoparticle-loading ability enhances the intensity of analytical signal, leading to effective cell recognition, drug delivery and anticancer treatment, and 4) aptamers linking to the surface of nanoparticles facilitates internalisation and cellular uptake of drugs with the aid of aptamer-guided active targeting. Aptamers have been extensively used to functionalize nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery, which is briefly presented below.


Nucleic acid aptamer-guided cancer therapeutics and diagnostics: the next generation of cancer medicine.

Xiang D, Shigdar S, Qiao G, Wang T, Kouzani AZ, Zhou SF, Kong L, Li Y, Pu C, Duan W - Theranostics (2015)

Aptamer-guided nano-drugs and their applications. (A) Schematic illustration of aptamer functionalised and drug-encapsulated nanoparticles. (B) Representative results from studies by Farokhzad et al. on A10 RNA aptamer functionalised Dtxl-encapsulated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (Dtxl-NP-Apt) and anticancer efficacy in vivo. Even a single intratumoral administration of Dtxl-NP-Apt is significantly more efficient in tumor reduction as evident from the ~6.5-fold smaller tumor volume than that in mice treated with the controls (saline, NP, or Dtxl) (a and b) and improved survival (109 days vs. 73 days in Dtxl-NP group) (c and d). Reproduced from Ref. 113, Copyright (2006), with permission from National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A..
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4265746&req=5

Figure 4: Aptamer-guided nano-drugs and their applications. (A) Schematic illustration of aptamer functionalised and drug-encapsulated nanoparticles. (B) Representative results from studies by Farokhzad et al. on A10 RNA aptamer functionalised Dtxl-encapsulated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (Dtxl-NP-Apt) and anticancer efficacy in vivo. Even a single intratumoral administration of Dtxl-NP-Apt is significantly more efficient in tumor reduction as evident from the ~6.5-fold smaller tumor volume than that in mice treated with the controls (saline, NP, or Dtxl) (a and b) and improved survival (109 days vs. 73 days in Dtxl-NP group) (c and d). Reproduced from Ref. 113, Copyright (2006), with permission from National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A..
Mentions: The past decade has witnessed promising advances in the synthesis and characterization of various nano-materials, which have been optimized for anti-cancer drug delivery vehicles 105. The hybrid aptamer-nanoparticle system significantly enhanced cancer-specific cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo 106, 107 (Fig. 4). Aptamer-guided nano therapeutics aid in circumventing pathophysiology barriers to enhance both the uptake and retention of drugs by tumor cells, leading to improved therapeutic efficacy 70, 108. There are four major merits when nanoparticles are surface functionalized by aptamers for targeted cancer drug delivery 109: 1) the specific recognition of aptamers to targets enables a targeted detection or binding to cancer cells; 2) the straightforward synthesis and chemical modification of aptamers can boost the translation of aptamers into clinical practice; 3) the biocompatible nanoparticle-loading ability enhances the intensity of analytical signal, leading to effective cell recognition, drug delivery and anticancer treatment, and 4) aptamers linking to the surface of nanoparticles facilitates internalisation and cellular uptake of drugs with the aid of aptamer-guided active targeting. Aptamers have been extensively used to functionalize nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery, which is briefly presented below.

Bottom Line: Conventional anticancer therapies, such as chemo- and/or radio-therapy are often unable to completely eradicate cancers due to abnormal tumor microenvironment, as well as increased drug/radiation resistance.More effective therapeutic strategies for overcoming these obstacles are urgently in demand.This review is to update the current progress of aptamer-based cancer diagnosis and aptamer-mediated active targeting for cancer therapy in vivo, exploring the potential of this novel form of targeted cancer therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. School of Medicine, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Conventional anticancer therapies, such as chemo- and/or radio-therapy are often unable to completely eradicate cancers due to abnormal tumor microenvironment, as well as increased drug/radiation resistance. More effective therapeutic strategies for overcoming these obstacles are urgently in demand. Aptamers, as chemical antibodies that bind to targets with high affinity and specificity, are a promising new and novel agent for both cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Aptamer-based cancer cell targeting facilitates the development of active targeting in which aptamer-mediated drug delivery could provide promising anticancer outcomes. This review is to update the current progress of aptamer-based cancer diagnosis and aptamer-mediated active targeting for cancer therapy in vivo, exploring the potential of this novel form of targeted cancer therapy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus