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Transcriptome Profiling of Wheat Seedlings following Treatment with Ultrahigh Diluted Arsenic Trioxide.

Marotti I, Betti L, Bregola V, Bosi S, Trebbi G, Borghini G, Nani D, Dinelli G - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Bottom Line: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether 7-day-old wheat seedlings, grown from seeds either poisoned with a sublethal dose of As2O3 or unpoisoned, showed different significant gene expression profiles after the application of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 (beyond Avogadro's limit) compared to water (control).The results provided evidence for a strong gene modulating effect of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 in seedlings grown from poisoned seeds: a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of the control group was observed for several functional classes of genes.A plausible hypothesis is that ultrahigh diluted As2O3 treatment induced a reequilibration of those genes that were upregulated during the oxidative stress by bringing the expression levels closer to the basal levels normally occurring in the control plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, Viale Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Plant systems are useful research tools to address basic questions in homeopathy as they make it possible to overcome some of the drawbacks encountered in clinical trials (placebo effect, ethical issues, duration of the experiment, and high costs). The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether 7-day-old wheat seedlings, grown from seeds either poisoned with a sublethal dose of As2O3 or unpoisoned, showed different significant gene expression profiles after the application of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 (beyond Avogadro's limit) compared to water (control). The results provided evidence for a strong gene modulating effect of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 in seedlings grown from poisoned seeds: a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of the control group was observed for several functional classes of genes. A plausible hypothesis is that ultrahigh diluted As2O3 treatment induced a reequilibration of those genes that were upregulated during the oxidative stress by bringing the expression levels closer to the basal levels normally occurring in the control plants.

No MeSH data available.


Venn diagrams showing the number of gene transcripts in seedlings grown in ultrahigh diluted As2O3 as compared to their respective control in both poisoned (P + T versus P + 0) and unpoisoned (C + T versus C + 0) experimental sets.
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fig2: Venn diagrams showing the number of gene transcripts in seedlings grown in ultrahigh diluted As2O3 as compared to their respective control in both poisoned (P + T versus P + 0) and unpoisoned (C + T versus C + 0) experimental sets.

Mentions: In the poisoned system, the comparison between P + 0 versus C + 0 and P + T versus C + 0 groups (Figure 1) revealed 146 probe sets common to both interactions, whereas 601 and 232 transcripts were specifically regulated in seedlings grown in water and As2O3 45x, respectively. This suggested that the application of ultrahigh diluted arsenic, besides inducing a fewer number of genes, influenced the expression of sets of genes different from those involved in the growth of seedlings in the presence of water. Analogously, by considering the comparison between poisoned and unpoisoned seeds grown with ultrahigh diluted arsenic in relation to their respective controls grown in water (C + T versus C + 0 and P + T versus P + 0), 169 probe sets were common for both interactions, whereas 423 and 474 genes were specifically induced in the C + T versus C + 0 and P + T versus P + 0 interactions, respectively (Figure 2).


Transcriptome Profiling of Wheat Seedlings following Treatment with Ultrahigh Diluted Arsenic Trioxide.

Marotti I, Betti L, Bregola V, Bosi S, Trebbi G, Borghini G, Nani D, Dinelli G - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2014)

Venn diagrams showing the number of gene transcripts in seedlings grown in ultrahigh diluted As2O3 as compared to their respective control in both poisoned (P + T versus P + 0) and unpoisoned (C + T versus C + 0) experimental sets.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4265686&req=5

fig2: Venn diagrams showing the number of gene transcripts in seedlings grown in ultrahigh diluted As2O3 as compared to their respective control in both poisoned (P + T versus P + 0) and unpoisoned (C + T versus C + 0) experimental sets.
Mentions: In the poisoned system, the comparison between P + 0 versus C + 0 and P + T versus C + 0 groups (Figure 1) revealed 146 probe sets common to both interactions, whereas 601 and 232 transcripts were specifically regulated in seedlings grown in water and As2O3 45x, respectively. This suggested that the application of ultrahigh diluted arsenic, besides inducing a fewer number of genes, influenced the expression of sets of genes different from those involved in the growth of seedlings in the presence of water. Analogously, by considering the comparison between poisoned and unpoisoned seeds grown with ultrahigh diluted arsenic in relation to their respective controls grown in water (C + T versus C + 0 and P + T versus P + 0), 169 probe sets were common for both interactions, whereas 423 and 474 genes were specifically induced in the C + T versus C + 0 and P + T versus P + 0 interactions, respectively (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether 7-day-old wheat seedlings, grown from seeds either poisoned with a sublethal dose of As2O3 or unpoisoned, showed different significant gene expression profiles after the application of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 (beyond Avogadro's limit) compared to water (control).The results provided evidence for a strong gene modulating effect of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 in seedlings grown from poisoned seeds: a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of the control group was observed for several functional classes of genes.A plausible hypothesis is that ultrahigh diluted As2O3 treatment induced a reequilibration of those genes that were upregulated during the oxidative stress by bringing the expression levels closer to the basal levels normally occurring in the control plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, Viale Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Plant systems are useful research tools to address basic questions in homeopathy as they make it possible to overcome some of the drawbacks encountered in clinical trials (placebo effect, ethical issues, duration of the experiment, and high costs). The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether 7-day-old wheat seedlings, grown from seeds either poisoned with a sublethal dose of As2O3 or unpoisoned, showed different significant gene expression profiles after the application of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 (beyond Avogadro's limit) compared to water (control). The results provided evidence for a strong gene modulating effect of ultrahigh diluted As2O3 in seedlings grown from poisoned seeds: a massive reduction of gene expression levels to values comparable to those of the control group was observed for several functional classes of genes. A plausible hypothesis is that ultrahigh diluted As2O3 treatment induced a reequilibration of those genes that were upregulated during the oxidative stress by bringing the expression levels closer to the basal levels normally occurring in the control plants.

No MeSH data available.