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Factors associated with unmet dental care needs in Canadian immigrants: an analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada.

Calvasina P, Muntaner C, Quiñonez C - BMC Oral Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period.In addition, South Asian (OR = 1.85; CI: 1.25-2.73) and Chinese (OR = 2.17; CI: 1.47-3.21) immigrants had significantly higher odds of reporting unmet dental care needs than Europeans.Lack of dental insurance, low income and ethnicity predicted unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period in a sample of immigrants to Canada.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry & Global Health Division, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. paola.calvasina@mail.utoronto.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Immigrants are often considered to have poorer oral health than native born-populations. One possible explanation for immigrants' poor oral health is lack of access to dental care. There is very little information on Canadian immigrants' access to dental care, and unmet dental care needs. This study examines predictors of unmet dental care needs among a sample of adult immigrants to Canada over a three-point-five-year post-migration period.

Methods: A secondary data analysis was conducted on the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Simple descriptive analyses were conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the sample. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period.

Results: Approximately 32% of immigrants reported unmet dental care needs. Immigrants lacking dental insurance (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.05-3.37), and those with an average household income of $20,000 to $40,000 per year (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.01-2.61), and lower than $20,000 (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.31-3.86), were more likely to report unmet dental care needs than those earning more than $60,000 per year. In addition, South Asian (OR = 1.85; CI: 1.25-2.73) and Chinese (OR = 2.17; CI: 1.47-3.21) immigrants had significantly higher odds of reporting unmet dental care needs than Europeans.

Conclusions: Lack of dental insurance, low income and ethnicity predicted unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period in a sample of immigrants to Canada.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Sample size for this analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2001-2005).
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Fig1: Sample size for this analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2001-2005).

Mentions: This study uses three waves of Statistics Canada’s Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC) to study immigrants’ unmet dental care needs. The survey collected information in more than 15 languages on socio-economic status, housing, language skills, values and social attitudes, social support, health status, access and utilization. Measures of access to, and utilization of dental services were included in the LSIC Health Module. Data were collected at six months (wave 1), two years (wave 2) and four years (wave 3) after immigration. The LSIC target population was derived from a sample of immigrants: 1) who arrived in Canada between October 2000 and September 2001; 2) were aged 15 years or older at time of landing; and 3) landed from abroad, and applied through a Canadian Mission abroad. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select the survey respondents. The first stage involved the selection of an immigrant unit (individual, couples or families) from the administrative database of Citizenship and Immigration Canada. The second stage involved the selection of one member from the immigrant unit, aged 15 years or older at the time of landing. Interviews were conducted in person and by telephone. A total of 7,716 respondents completed the three waves of interviews, representing a cohort of 157,600 immigrants [24]. Our study sample included non-refugee immigrants aged 18-60 years old, who left their country of origin directly to immigrate to Canada (i.e., they did not live in Canada or in a third country before participating in the LSIC study) and who reported an unmet dental care need over the years after immigrating to Canada. Thus, our final study sample comprised 2,126 immigrants. Figure 1 shows details of the sample selection criteria. We excluded immigrants who had lived in Canada before immigrating, as well as those who had lived in a third country before participating in the LSIC, because we were interested in examining the effect of the first process of immigration on immigrants’ ability to have access to dental care in Canada. Previous exposure to acculturation would possibly impact new Canadian immigrants’ perception of dental problems and unmet dental care needs. Data were accessed from Statistics Canada Research Data Centre (RDC) at the University of Toronto. Permission to access the data was granted by a Statistics Canada Subject Matter Expert based on the relevance of the research methods, and the expertise of the research team to carry out the proposed research. There was no need to obtain ethical approval for this study. According to Canadian National Ethics regulations [25] data held by Statistics Canada is legally accessible and appropriately protected by law.Figure 1


Factors associated with unmet dental care needs in Canadian immigrants: an analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada.

Calvasina P, Muntaner C, Quiñonez C - BMC Oral Health (2014)

Sample size for this analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2001-2005).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4265528&req=5

Fig1: Sample size for this analysis of the longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada (2001-2005).
Mentions: This study uses three waves of Statistics Canada’s Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC) to study immigrants’ unmet dental care needs. The survey collected information in more than 15 languages on socio-economic status, housing, language skills, values and social attitudes, social support, health status, access and utilization. Measures of access to, and utilization of dental services were included in the LSIC Health Module. Data were collected at six months (wave 1), two years (wave 2) and four years (wave 3) after immigration. The LSIC target population was derived from a sample of immigrants: 1) who arrived in Canada between October 2000 and September 2001; 2) were aged 15 years or older at time of landing; and 3) landed from abroad, and applied through a Canadian Mission abroad. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used to select the survey respondents. The first stage involved the selection of an immigrant unit (individual, couples or families) from the administrative database of Citizenship and Immigration Canada. The second stage involved the selection of one member from the immigrant unit, aged 15 years or older at the time of landing. Interviews were conducted in person and by telephone. A total of 7,716 respondents completed the three waves of interviews, representing a cohort of 157,600 immigrants [24]. Our study sample included non-refugee immigrants aged 18-60 years old, who left their country of origin directly to immigrate to Canada (i.e., they did not live in Canada or in a third country before participating in the LSIC study) and who reported an unmet dental care need over the years after immigrating to Canada. Thus, our final study sample comprised 2,126 immigrants. Figure 1 shows details of the sample selection criteria. We excluded immigrants who had lived in Canada before immigrating, as well as those who had lived in a third country before participating in the LSIC, because we were interested in examining the effect of the first process of immigration on immigrants’ ability to have access to dental care in Canada. Previous exposure to acculturation would possibly impact new Canadian immigrants’ perception of dental problems and unmet dental care needs. Data were accessed from Statistics Canada Research Data Centre (RDC) at the University of Toronto. Permission to access the data was granted by a Statistics Canada Subject Matter Expert based on the relevance of the research methods, and the expertise of the research team to carry out the proposed research. There was no need to obtain ethical approval for this study. According to Canadian National Ethics regulations [25] data held by Statistics Canada is legally accessible and appropriately protected by law.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period.In addition, South Asian (OR = 1.85; CI: 1.25-2.73) and Chinese (OR = 2.17; CI: 1.47-3.21) immigrants had significantly higher odds of reporting unmet dental care needs than Europeans.Lack of dental insurance, low income and ethnicity predicted unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period in a sample of immigrants to Canada.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Dentistry & Global Health Division, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. paola.calvasina@mail.utoronto.ca.

ABSTRACT

Background: Immigrants are often considered to have poorer oral health than native born-populations. One possible explanation for immigrants' poor oral health is lack of access to dental care. There is very little information on Canadian immigrants' access to dental care, and unmet dental care needs. This study examines predictors of unmet dental care needs among a sample of adult immigrants to Canada over a three-point-five-year post-migration period.

Methods: A secondary data analysis was conducted on the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC). Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Simple descriptive analyses were conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the sample. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with immigrants' unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period.

Results: Approximately 32% of immigrants reported unmet dental care needs. Immigrants lacking dental insurance (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.05-3.37), and those with an average household income of $20,000 to $40,000 per year (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.01-2.61), and lower than $20,000 (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.31-3.86), were more likely to report unmet dental care needs than those earning more than $60,000 per year. In addition, South Asian (OR = 1.85; CI: 1.25-2.73) and Chinese (OR = 2.17; CI: 1.47-3.21) immigrants had significantly higher odds of reporting unmet dental care needs than Europeans.

Conclusions: Lack of dental insurance, low income and ethnicity predicted unmet dental care needs over a three-point-five-year period in a sample of immigrants to Canada.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus