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The impact of a cancer diagnosis on weight change: findings from prospective, population-based cohorts in the UK and the US.

Jackson SE, Williams K, Steptoe A, Wardle J - BMC Cancer (2014)

Bottom Line: Three-way interactions were significant in both cohorts (ELSA p=.015; HRS p<.001).Whether this was due to differences in clinical status or deliberate lifestyle change triggered by the cancer diagnosis is not known.Further research is needed to establish why weight loss occurs more frequently in cancer survivors who were obese at diagnosis, and whether this has favourable effects on mortality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. j.wardle@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for cancer incidence and survival, but data on patterns of weight change in cancer survivors are scarce and few stratify by pre-diagnosis weight status. In two population-based cohorts of older adults, we examined weight change in cancer survivors and cancer-free controls in relation to baseline weight status.

Methods: In the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we identified participants diagnosed with cancer who had pre- and post-diagnosis BMI data (ELSA n=264; HRS n=2553), and cancer-free controls (ELSA n=1538; HRS n=4946). Repeated-measures ANOVAs tested three-way interactions by group (cancer/control), time (pre-/post-diagnosis), and pre-diagnosis weight status (normal-weight/overweight/obese).

Results: Mean BMI change was -0.07 (SD=2.22) in cancer survivors vs. +0.14 (SD=1.11) in cancer-free controls in ELSA, and -0.20 (SD=2.84) vs. +0.11 (SD=0.93) respectively in HRS. Three-way interactions were significant in both cohorts (ELSA p=.015; HRS p<.001). In ELSA, mean BMI change in normal-weight cancer survivors was +0.19 (SD=1.53) compared with -0.33 (SD=3.04) in obese survivors. In ELSA controls, the respective figures were +0.09 (SD=0.81) and +0.16 (SD=1.50). In HRS, mean change in normal-weight cancer survivors was +0.07 (SD=2.30) compared with -0.72 (SD=3.53) in obese survivors. In HRS controls, the respective figures were +0.003 (SD=0.66) and +0.27 (SD=1.27).

Conclusion: Over a four-year period, in two cohorts of older adults, cancer survivors lost weight relative to cancer-free controls. However, cancer survivors who were obese pre-diagnosis were more likely to lose weight than healthy-weight survivors or obese adults without a cancer diagnosis. Whether this was due to differences in clinical status or deliberate lifestyle change triggered by the cancer diagnosis is not known. Further research is needed to establish why weight loss occurs more frequently in cancer survivors who were obese at diagnosis, and whether this has favourable effects on mortality.

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Mean BMI at baseline and follow-up in the cancer group and the comparison group in the ELSA cohort by pre-diagnosis weight status.
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Fig2: Mean BMI at baseline and follow-up in the cancer group and the comparison group in the ELSA cohort by pre-diagnosis weight status.

Mentions: The three-way interaction between group, time, and pre-diagnosis weight status was significant in both cohorts (ELSA p = .015; HRS p < .001), with the cancer-control differences in BMI change being greatest among those who were obese pre-diagnosis. In ELSA, the mean BMI change in cancer survivors who had been normal weight pre-diagnosis was +0.19 kg/m2 (SD = 1.53), compared with -0.03 kg/m2 (SD = 1.99) in survivors who had been overweight, and -0.33 kg/m2 (SD =3.04) in those who had been obese. In the ELSA comparison group the respective figures were +0.09 kg/m2 (SD = 0.81), +0.20 kg/m2 (SD = 1.18), and +0.16 kg/m2 (SD = 1.50) (FigureĀ 2).Figure 2


The impact of a cancer diagnosis on weight change: findings from prospective, population-based cohorts in the UK and the US.

Jackson SE, Williams K, Steptoe A, Wardle J - BMC Cancer (2014)

Mean BMI at baseline and follow-up in the cancer group and the comparison group in the ELSA cohort by pre-diagnosis weight status.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4265482&req=5

Fig2: Mean BMI at baseline and follow-up in the cancer group and the comparison group in the ELSA cohort by pre-diagnosis weight status.
Mentions: The three-way interaction between group, time, and pre-diagnosis weight status was significant in both cohorts (ELSA p = .015; HRS p < .001), with the cancer-control differences in BMI change being greatest among those who were obese pre-diagnosis. In ELSA, the mean BMI change in cancer survivors who had been normal weight pre-diagnosis was +0.19 kg/m2 (SD = 1.53), compared with -0.03 kg/m2 (SD = 1.99) in survivors who had been overweight, and -0.33 kg/m2 (SD =3.04) in those who had been obese. In the ELSA comparison group the respective figures were +0.09 kg/m2 (SD = 0.81), +0.20 kg/m2 (SD = 1.18), and +0.16 kg/m2 (SD = 1.50) (FigureĀ 2).Figure 2

Bottom Line: Three-way interactions were significant in both cohorts (ELSA p=.015; HRS p<.001).Whether this was due to differences in clinical status or deliberate lifestyle change triggered by the cancer diagnosis is not known.Further research is needed to establish why weight loss occurs more frequently in cancer survivors who were obese at diagnosis, and whether this has favourable effects on mortality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. j.wardle@ucl.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity is a risk factor for cancer incidence and survival, but data on patterns of weight change in cancer survivors are scarce and few stratify by pre-diagnosis weight status. In two population-based cohorts of older adults, we examined weight change in cancer survivors and cancer-free controls in relation to baseline weight status.

Methods: In the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we identified participants diagnosed with cancer who had pre- and post-diagnosis BMI data (ELSA n=264; HRS n=2553), and cancer-free controls (ELSA n=1538; HRS n=4946). Repeated-measures ANOVAs tested three-way interactions by group (cancer/control), time (pre-/post-diagnosis), and pre-diagnosis weight status (normal-weight/overweight/obese).

Results: Mean BMI change was -0.07 (SD=2.22) in cancer survivors vs. +0.14 (SD=1.11) in cancer-free controls in ELSA, and -0.20 (SD=2.84) vs. +0.11 (SD=0.93) respectively in HRS. Three-way interactions were significant in both cohorts (ELSA p=.015; HRS p<.001). In ELSA, mean BMI change in normal-weight cancer survivors was +0.19 (SD=1.53) compared with -0.33 (SD=3.04) in obese survivors. In ELSA controls, the respective figures were +0.09 (SD=0.81) and +0.16 (SD=1.50). In HRS, mean change in normal-weight cancer survivors was +0.07 (SD=2.30) compared with -0.72 (SD=3.53) in obese survivors. In HRS controls, the respective figures were +0.003 (SD=0.66) and +0.27 (SD=1.27).

Conclusion: Over a four-year period, in two cohorts of older adults, cancer survivors lost weight relative to cancer-free controls. However, cancer survivors who were obese pre-diagnosis were more likely to lose weight than healthy-weight survivors or obese adults without a cancer diagnosis. Whether this was due to differences in clinical status or deliberate lifestyle change triggered by the cancer diagnosis is not known. Further research is needed to establish why weight loss occurs more frequently in cancer survivors who were obese at diagnosis, and whether this has favourable effects on mortality.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus