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Global phenotypic and genomic comparison of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains reveals a novel role of the sulfur assimilation pathway in adaptation at low temperature fermentations.

García-Ríos E, López-Malo M, Guillamón JM - BMC Genomics (2014)

Bottom Line: The presence of some metabolites of these pathways, such as S-Adenosilmethionine (SAM) and glutathione, counteracted the differences in growth rate at low temperature in both strains.This work reveals a novel role of the sulfur assimilation pathway in adaptation at low temperature.We propose that a greater activation of this metabolic route enhances the synthesis of key metabolites, such as glutathione, whose protective effects can contribute to improve the fermentation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biotecnología de los alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de los Alimentos (CSIC), Avda, Agustín Escardino, Po Box 73E-46100 Paterna, Valencia, Spain. guillamon@iata.csic.es.

ABSTRACT

Background: The wine industry needs better-adapted yeasts to grow at low temperature because it is interested in fermenting at low temperature to improve wine aroma. Elucidating the response to cold in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of paramount importance for the selection or genetic improvement of wine strains.

Results: We followed a global approach by comparing transcriptomic, proteomic and genomic changes in two commercial wine strains, which showed clear differences in their growth and fermentation capacity at low temperature. These strains were selected according to the maximum growth rate in a synthetic grape must during miniaturized batch cultures at different temperatures. The fitness differences of the selected strains were corroborated by directly competing during fermentations at optimum and low temperatures. The up-regulation of the genes of the sulfur assimilation pathway and glutathione biosynthesis suggested a crucial role in better performance at low temperature. The presence of some metabolites of these pathways, such as S-Adenosilmethionine (SAM) and glutathione, counteracted the differences in growth rate at low temperature in both strains. Generally, the proteomic and genomic changes observed in both strains also supported the importance of these metabolic pathways in adaptation at low temperature.

Conclusions: This work reveals a novel role of the sulfur assimilation pathway in adaptation at low temperature. We propose that a greater activation of this metabolic route enhances the synthesis of key metabolites, such as glutathione, whose protective effects can contribute to improve the fermentation process.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Population dynamics of a mixed culture between strains P5 (green lines) and P24 (red lines) growing in synthetic must (SM). The percentage of each strain was determined by flow cytometry during fermentation (0, 24, 48, 72, 96,144, 240 and 480 h) at 15°C (▲) and 28°C (●).
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Fig3: Population dynamics of a mixed culture between strains P5 (green lines) and P24 (red lines) growing in synthetic must (SM). The percentage of each strain was determined by flow cytometry during fermentation (0, 24, 48, 72, 96,144, 240 and 480 h) at 15°C (▲) and 28°C (●).

Mentions: Strain P24 underwent significant delays in all the low-temperature fermentation stages if compared to the P5 fermentations, whereas only the beginning of fermentation (T5) was delayed at 28°C. It is noteworthy that the interaction of both strains in the mixed fermentation (P5 GPF/P24) significantly affected fermentation lengths at both temperatures, with long delays noted in the fermentation ends if compared to P5 fermenting as a pure culture. This result was even more surprising when the percentage of each strain was monitored during these mixed fermentations (Figure 3). Strain P5 gradually took over the fermentation process at low temperature and obtained percentages of around 85% of the total population at the end of the process. Conversely no strain dominated the fermentation process at 28°C, with populations of around 50% for each strain. The greater competition capacity of strain P5 at low temperature was also corroborated by repeating this experiment in SD medium (Additional file 3: Figure S2).Figure 3


Global phenotypic and genomic comparison of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains reveals a novel role of the sulfur assimilation pathway in adaptation at low temperature fermentations.

García-Ríos E, López-Malo M, Guillamón JM - BMC Genomics (2014)

Population dynamics of a mixed culture between strains P5 (green lines) and P24 (red lines) growing in synthetic must (SM). The percentage of each strain was determined by flow cytometry during fermentation (0, 24, 48, 72, 96,144, 240 and 480 h) at 15°C (▲) and 28°C (●).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4265444&req=5

Fig3: Population dynamics of a mixed culture between strains P5 (green lines) and P24 (red lines) growing in synthetic must (SM). The percentage of each strain was determined by flow cytometry during fermentation (0, 24, 48, 72, 96,144, 240 and 480 h) at 15°C (▲) and 28°C (●).
Mentions: Strain P24 underwent significant delays in all the low-temperature fermentation stages if compared to the P5 fermentations, whereas only the beginning of fermentation (T5) was delayed at 28°C. It is noteworthy that the interaction of both strains in the mixed fermentation (P5 GPF/P24) significantly affected fermentation lengths at both temperatures, with long delays noted in the fermentation ends if compared to P5 fermenting as a pure culture. This result was even more surprising when the percentage of each strain was monitored during these mixed fermentations (Figure 3). Strain P5 gradually took over the fermentation process at low temperature and obtained percentages of around 85% of the total population at the end of the process. Conversely no strain dominated the fermentation process at 28°C, with populations of around 50% for each strain. The greater competition capacity of strain P5 at low temperature was also corroborated by repeating this experiment in SD medium (Additional file 3: Figure S2).Figure 3

Bottom Line: The presence of some metabolites of these pathways, such as S-Adenosilmethionine (SAM) and glutathione, counteracted the differences in growth rate at low temperature in both strains.This work reveals a novel role of the sulfur assimilation pathway in adaptation at low temperature.We propose that a greater activation of this metabolic route enhances the synthesis of key metabolites, such as glutathione, whose protective effects can contribute to improve the fermentation process.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biotecnología de los alimentos, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de los Alimentos (CSIC), Avda, Agustín Escardino, Po Box 73E-46100 Paterna, Valencia, Spain. guillamon@iata.csic.es.

ABSTRACT

Background: The wine industry needs better-adapted yeasts to grow at low temperature because it is interested in fermenting at low temperature to improve wine aroma. Elucidating the response to cold in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is of paramount importance for the selection or genetic improvement of wine strains.

Results: We followed a global approach by comparing transcriptomic, proteomic and genomic changes in two commercial wine strains, which showed clear differences in their growth and fermentation capacity at low temperature. These strains were selected according to the maximum growth rate in a synthetic grape must during miniaturized batch cultures at different temperatures. The fitness differences of the selected strains were corroborated by directly competing during fermentations at optimum and low temperatures. The up-regulation of the genes of the sulfur assimilation pathway and glutathione biosynthesis suggested a crucial role in better performance at low temperature. The presence of some metabolites of these pathways, such as S-Adenosilmethionine (SAM) and glutathione, counteracted the differences in growth rate at low temperature in both strains. Generally, the proteomic and genomic changes observed in both strains also supported the importance of these metabolic pathways in adaptation at low temperature.

Conclusions: This work reveals a novel role of the sulfur assimilation pathway in adaptation at low temperature. We propose that a greater activation of this metabolic route enhances the synthesis of key metabolites, such as glutathione, whose protective effects can contribute to improve the fermentation process.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus