Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial.
Bottom Line: We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat.Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03).Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08).
Affiliation: Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Netherlands.Show MeSH
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Mentions: A schematic overview of the study design is presented in Fig. 1. After inclusion subjects started the 1-week run-in phase: they reported their ad libitum intake on an online diet journal (eetmeter.voedingscentrum.nl). Body weight before and after this week had to be similar; the consumed amount of calories was then considered adequate for weight maintenance, i.e., eucaloric. Subjects were then randomized into one of four hypercaloric diet groups (n = 8/group) or a control group (n = 5). The control group underwent all measurements but continued the weight maintaining ad libitum diet. The diet was followed for 6 consecutive weeks. Subjects visited the research unit weekly for measurement of body weight and resting energy expenditure (REE) and diet monitoring; subjects daily reported their ad libitum intake online. When ad libitum caloric intake was lower than caloric need (1.4 × REE), subjects were instructed to increase their ad libitum intake. After the intervention, subjects were monitored until they returned to their baseline body weight. The baseline characteristics, study design, and changes in body weight have previously been reported.24
Affiliation: Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Netherlands.