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Physalis floridana Cell Number Regulator1 encodes a cell membrane-anchored modulator of cell cycle and negatively controls fruit size.

Li Z, He C - J. Exp. Bot. (2014)

Bottom Line: Physalis species show a significant variation in berry size; however, the underlying molecular basis is unknown.The nuclear import of PfAG2 was essential in the proposed pathway.This study also sheds light on the link between organ identity and organ growth in plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanxincun 20, Xiangshan, Haidian, 100093 Beijing, PR China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19, 100049 Beijing, PR China.

No MeSH data available.


Characterizations of the PfCNR1 gene family. (A) Local synteny of FW2.2 and PfCNR1 between tomato and Physalis species. PfCNR1 genes were isolated from P. philadelphica (P058), P. philadelphica (P064), and P. floridana (P106). The upstream ORF38 of FW2.2 (PfCNR1) encodes an unknown protein, while the downstream gene is mdtK. The full length of each assembled genomic fragment is given in parenthesis. (B) PfCNR1 expression in four floral whorls at anthesis. P. philadelphica (P058), P. philadelphica (P064), and P. floridana (P106) were tested. (C) PfCNR1 expression in Physalis species. Developmental stages were defined as in Fig. 2A and B. 15S, seeds from 15 DPA; 30S, seed from 30 DPA; L, leaf. PfACTIN was used as an internal control. The experiments were performed using three independent biological samples. The mean and standard deviation are presented. (D–i) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in P. floridana P106: B1 flower bud (D); B2 flower bud (E); carpel of the B2 flower bud (F); B3 flower bud (G); carpel of the mature flower (H); 5 DPA fruit (I). (J–M) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in P. philadelphica P058 and P064: B2 flower bud of P058 (J); B2 flower bud of P064 (K); carpel of the mature flower of P058 (L); carpel of the mature flower of P064 (M). A PfCNR1 anti-mRNA probe was used in (D)–(M). (N) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in a B2 flower bud of P. floridana P106 using a PfCNR1 sense probe as a negative control. Bars, 100 μm. Developmental stages were identical as defined in Fig. 2A and B.
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Figure 3: Characterizations of the PfCNR1 gene family. (A) Local synteny of FW2.2 and PfCNR1 between tomato and Physalis species. PfCNR1 genes were isolated from P. philadelphica (P058), P. philadelphica (P064), and P. floridana (P106). The upstream ORF38 of FW2.2 (PfCNR1) encodes an unknown protein, while the downstream gene is mdtK. The full length of each assembled genomic fragment is given in parenthesis. (B) PfCNR1 expression in four floral whorls at anthesis. P. philadelphica (P058), P. philadelphica (P064), and P. floridana (P106) were tested. (C) PfCNR1 expression in Physalis species. Developmental stages were defined as in Fig. 2A and B. 15S, seeds from 15 DPA; 30S, seed from 30 DPA; L, leaf. PfACTIN was used as an internal control. The experiments were performed using three independent biological samples. The mean and standard deviation are presented. (D–i) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in P. floridana P106: B1 flower bud (D); B2 flower bud (E); carpel of the B2 flower bud (F); B3 flower bud (G); carpel of the mature flower (H); 5 DPA fruit (I). (J–M) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in P. philadelphica P058 and P064: B2 flower bud of P058 (J); B2 flower bud of P064 (K); carpel of the mature flower of P058 (L); carpel of the mature flower of P064 (M). A PfCNR1 anti-mRNA probe was used in (D)–(M). (N) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in a B2 flower bud of P. floridana P106 using a PfCNR1 sense probe as a negative control. Bars, 100 μm. Developmental stages were identical as defined in Fig. 2A and B.

Mentions: FW2.2 controls tomato size mainly by regulating carpel cell division (Frary et al., 2000). We therefore focused on characterizing the homologous genes in Physalis species. Three cDNAs were isolated from P. floridana and designated as the PfCNR1 family. PfCNR1 encoded a protein that shared the highest identity (80%) with FW2.2, while the other two, which were designated as PfCNR1-like 1 (PfCNR1L1) and PfCNR1L2, had 52 and 50% identity, respectively, with PfCNR1. The two additional FW2.2 homologous genes, FW2.2L1 and FW2.2L2, were also found in the tomato genome. The orthology between PfCNR1 and FW2.2 was supported by phylogenetic analyses of the gene family (Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online) and local genomic microsynteny analyses (Fig. 3A). We assembled the genomic fragments harbouring the putative genes ORF38, PfCNR1, and mdtK through genomic walking. These were conserved among P106, P064, P058, and tomato. Considering the role of FW2.2 in tomato (Frary et al., 2000; Cong et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2003), we focused our investigation on the role of PfCNR1 in Physalis species. The two close parologues, PfCNR1L1 and PfCNR1L2, were used as controls in some cases.


Physalis floridana Cell Number Regulator1 encodes a cell membrane-anchored modulator of cell cycle and negatively controls fruit size.

Li Z, He C - J. Exp. Bot. (2014)

Characterizations of the PfCNR1 gene family. (A) Local synteny of FW2.2 and PfCNR1 between tomato and Physalis species. PfCNR1 genes were isolated from P. philadelphica (P058), P. philadelphica (P064), and P. floridana (P106). The upstream ORF38 of FW2.2 (PfCNR1) encodes an unknown protein, while the downstream gene is mdtK. The full length of each assembled genomic fragment is given in parenthesis. (B) PfCNR1 expression in four floral whorls at anthesis. P. philadelphica (P058), P. philadelphica (P064), and P. floridana (P106) were tested. (C) PfCNR1 expression in Physalis species. Developmental stages were defined as in Fig. 2A and B. 15S, seeds from 15 DPA; 30S, seed from 30 DPA; L, leaf. PfACTIN was used as an internal control. The experiments were performed using three independent biological samples. The mean and standard deviation are presented. (D–i) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in P. floridana P106: B1 flower bud (D); B2 flower bud (E); carpel of the B2 flower bud (F); B3 flower bud (G); carpel of the mature flower (H); 5 DPA fruit (I). (J–M) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in P. philadelphica P058 and P064: B2 flower bud of P058 (J); B2 flower bud of P064 (K); carpel of the mature flower of P058 (L); carpel of the mature flower of P064 (M). A PfCNR1 anti-mRNA probe was used in (D)–(M). (N) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in a B2 flower bud of P. floridana P106 using a PfCNR1 sense probe as a negative control. Bars, 100 μm. Developmental stages were identical as defined in Fig. 2A and B.
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Figure 3: Characterizations of the PfCNR1 gene family. (A) Local synteny of FW2.2 and PfCNR1 between tomato and Physalis species. PfCNR1 genes were isolated from P. philadelphica (P058), P. philadelphica (P064), and P. floridana (P106). The upstream ORF38 of FW2.2 (PfCNR1) encodes an unknown protein, while the downstream gene is mdtK. The full length of each assembled genomic fragment is given in parenthesis. (B) PfCNR1 expression in four floral whorls at anthesis. P. philadelphica (P058), P. philadelphica (P064), and P. floridana (P106) were tested. (C) PfCNR1 expression in Physalis species. Developmental stages were defined as in Fig. 2A and B. 15S, seeds from 15 DPA; 30S, seed from 30 DPA; L, leaf. PfACTIN was used as an internal control. The experiments were performed using three independent biological samples. The mean and standard deviation are presented. (D–i) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in P. floridana P106: B1 flower bud (D); B2 flower bud (E); carpel of the B2 flower bud (F); B3 flower bud (G); carpel of the mature flower (H); 5 DPA fruit (I). (J–M) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in P. philadelphica P058 and P064: B2 flower bud of P058 (J); B2 flower bud of P064 (K); carpel of the mature flower of P058 (L); carpel of the mature flower of P064 (M). A PfCNR1 anti-mRNA probe was used in (D)–(M). (N) In situ hybridization of PfCNR1 in a B2 flower bud of P. floridana P106 using a PfCNR1 sense probe as a negative control. Bars, 100 μm. Developmental stages were identical as defined in Fig. 2A and B.
Mentions: FW2.2 controls tomato size mainly by regulating carpel cell division (Frary et al., 2000). We therefore focused on characterizing the homologous genes in Physalis species. Three cDNAs were isolated from P. floridana and designated as the PfCNR1 family. PfCNR1 encoded a protein that shared the highest identity (80%) with FW2.2, while the other two, which were designated as PfCNR1-like 1 (PfCNR1L1) and PfCNR1L2, had 52 and 50% identity, respectively, with PfCNR1. The two additional FW2.2 homologous genes, FW2.2L1 and FW2.2L2, were also found in the tomato genome. The orthology between PfCNR1 and FW2.2 was supported by phylogenetic analyses of the gene family (Supplementary Fig. S2 at JXB online) and local genomic microsynteny analyses (Fig. 3A). We assembled the genomic fragments harbouring the putative genes ORF38, PfCNR1, and mdtK through genomic walking. These were conserved among P106, P064, P058, and tomato. Considering the role of FW2.2 in tomato (Frary et al., 2000; Cong et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2003), we focused our investigation on the role of PfCNR1 in Physalis species. The two close parologues, PfCNR1L1 and PfCNR1L2, were used as controls in some cases.

Bottom Line: Physalis species show a significant variation in berry size; however, the underlying molecular basis is unknown.The nuclear import of PfAG2 was essential in the proposed pathway.This study also sheds light on the link between organ identity and organ growth in plants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanxincun 20, Xiangshan, Haidian, 100093 Beijing, PR China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuquan Road 19, 100049 Beijing, PR China.

No MeSH data available.