Limits...
Mutualistic interaction between Salmonella enterica and Aspergillus niger and its effects on Zea mays colonization.

Balbontín R, Vlamakis H, Kolter R - Microb Biotechnol (2014)

Bottom Line: Aspergillus niger is a ubiquitous fungus that can often be found in soil or associated to plants and microbial consortia.In this work, we have found that this interaction is stable for weeks without a noticeable negative effect on either organism.Strikingly, co-colonization also causes a reduction in plant invasion by S. Typhimurium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, HIM building, Room #1042, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Bacterial growth requires live fungi or dead fungal lysate. Bacteria were detached and quantified at different time points, and cfu were normalized with respect to input values.A. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone, dark grey bars represent growth of S. Typhimurium in co-incubation with live A. niger, striped bars represent bacterial growth in co-incubation with heat-killed fungal filaments (washed after killing) and white bars represent growth in co-incubation with live fungi separated by a semipermeable membrane.B. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone, dark grey bars represent growth of S. Typhimurium in co-incubation with live A. niger and striped bars represent bacterial growth in co-incubation with heat-killed fungi in the same potassium phosphate buffer where it was killed.C. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone and dark grey ones represent growth of S. Typhimurium in presence of A. niger filtrate. All co-incubations were performed in potassium phosphate buffer. Error bars represent standard deviation of the values obtained in three independent biological replicates (n = 3). Y-axis values are represented in logarithmic scale.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4265077&req=5

fig04: Bacterial growth requires live fungi or dead fungal lysate. Bacteria were detached and quantified at different time points, and cfu were normalized with respect to input values.A. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone, dark grey bars represent growth of S. Typhimurium in co-incubation with live A. niger, striped bars represent bacterial growth in co-incubation with heat-killed fungal filaments (washed after killing) and white bars represent growth in co-incubation with live fungi separated by a semipermeable membrane.B. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone, dark grey bars represent growth of S. Typhimurium in co-incubation with live A. niger and striped bars represent bacterial growth in co-incubation with heat-killed fungi in the same potassium phosphate buffer where it was killed.C. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone and dark grey ones represent growth of S. Typhimurium in presence of A. niger filtrate. All co-incubations were performed in potassium phosphate buffer. Error bars represent standard deviation of the values obtained in three independent biological replicates (n = 3). Y-axis values are represented in logarithmic scale.

Mentions: In experiments involving physical separation of fungi and bacteria (Fig. 4A), Millicell® Cell Culture Inserts (EMD Millipore, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) were used. The membranes were reinforced by adding 100 μl of 0.7% agarose (w/v). Diffusion through the membrane was assessed by measuring optical density of coloured solutions.


Mutualistic interaction between Salmonella enterica and Aspergillus niger and its effects on Zea mays colonization.

Balbontín R, Vlamakis H, Kolter R - Microb Biotechnol (2014)

Bacterial growth requires live fungi or dead fungal lysate. Bacteria were detached and quantified at different time points, and cfu were normalized with respect to input values.A. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone, dark grey bars represent growth of S. Typhimurium in co-incubation with live A. niger, striped bars represent bacterial growth in co-incubation with heat-killed fungal filaments (washed after killing) and white bars represent growth in co-incubation with live fungi separated by a semipermeable membrane.B. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone, dark grey bars represent growth of S. Typhimurium in co-incubation with live A. niger and striped bars represent bacterial growth in co-incubation with heat-killed fungi in the same potassium phosphate buffer where it was killed.C. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone and dark grey ones represent growth of S. Typhimurium in presence of A. niger filtrate. All co-incubations were performed in potassium phosphate buffer. Error bars represent standard deviation of the values obtained in three independent biological replicates (n = 3). Y-axis values are represented in logarithmic scale.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4265077&req=5

fig04: Bacterial growth requires live fungi or dead fungal lysate. Bacteria were detached and quantified at different time points, and cfu were normalized with respect to input values.A. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone, dark grey bars represent growth of S. Typhimurium in co-incubation with live A. niger, striped bars represent bacterial growth in co-incubation with heat-killed fungal filaments (washed after killing) and white bars represent growth in co-incubation with live fungi separated by a semipermeable membrane.B. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone, dark grey bars represent growth of S. Typhimurium in co-incubation with live A. niger and striped bars represent bacterial growth in co-incubation with heat-killed fungi in the same potassium phosphate buffer where it was killed.C. Light grey bars represent growth of bacteria alone and dark grey ones represent growth of S. Typhimurium in presence of A. niger filtrate. All co-incubations were performed in potassium phosphate buffer. Error bars represent standard deviation of the values obtained in three independent biological replicates (n = 3). Y-axis values are represented in logarithmic scale.
Mentions: In experiments involving physical separation of fungi and bacteria (Fig. 4A), Millicell® Cell Culture Inserts (EMD Millipore, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) were used. The membranes were reinforced by adding 100 μl of 0.7% agarose (w/v). Diffusion through the membrane was assessed by measuring optical density of coloured solutions.

Bottom Line: Aspergillus niger is a ubiquitous fungus that can often be found in soil or associated to plants and microbial consortia.In this work, we have found that this interaction is stable for weeks without a noticeable negative effect on either organism.Strikingly, co-colonization also causes a reduction in plant invasion by S. Typhimurium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, HIM building, Room #1042, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus