Limits...
Studying developmental variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA).

Mayer C, Metscher BD, Müller GB, Mitteroecker P - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry.We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout.Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Theoretical Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional embryonic images. Well-differentiated structures are described in terms of their shape, whereas structures with diffuse boundaries, such as emerging cell condensations or molecular gradients, are described as spatial patterns of intensities. We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout. Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Visualization of average shape change together with average change of cell density.(A) Between 21 dpf and 40 dpf and (B) between 40 dpf and 56 dpf. The deformation grid shows how the shape of the fin changed from a rounded to a more triangular shape during both periods. Changes of cell density are represented by the color map. From 21 to 40 dpf, cell density increased (blue) in the fin, whereas it decreased (red) in the musculature and the notochord. From 40 to 56 dpf, cell density increased in the fin rays and decreased in between.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264869&req=5

pone-0115076-g003: Visualization of average shape change together with average change of cell density.(A) Between 21 dpf and 40 dpf and (B) between 40 dpf and 56 dpf. The deformation grid shows how the shape of the fin changed from a rounded to a more triangular shape during both periods. Changes of cell density are represented by the color map. From 21 to 40 dpf, cell density increased (blue) in the fin, whereas it decreased (red) in the musculature and the notochord. From 40 to 56 dpf, cell density increased in the fin rays and decreased in between.

Mentions: The differences between the age groups, i.e., the developmental transformations, can explicitly be visualized by superimposing a thin-plate spline deformation grid, depicting developmental shape change, and a color map that represents increase or decrease of cell density. For this purpose, the full color information for each pixel was reduced to brightness (average of the RGB values). The higher the cell density (number of projected stained cell nuclei), the darker the pixel will appear and the lower the brightness will be. Fig. 3a shows the transformation from a rounded to a more triangular fin shape between 21 dpf and 40 dpf, which was associated with an average increase of cell density in the fin fold and a decrease of cell density in the musculature and the notochord. Between 40 dpf and 56 dpf, average cell density decreased in the musculature, the notochord, and also in between the fin rays, while density increased inside the fin rays (Fig. 3b).


Studying developmental variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA).

Mayer C, Metscher BD, Müller GB, Mitteroecker P - PLoS ONE (2014)

Visualization of average shape change together with average change of cell density.(A) Between 21 dpf and 40 dpf and (B) between 40 dpf and 56 dpf. The deformation grid shows how the shape of the fin changed from a rounded to a more triangular shape during both periods. Changes of cell density are represented by the color map. From 21 to 40 dpf, cell density increased (blue) in the fin, whereas it decreased (red) in the musculature and the notochord. From 40 to 56 dpf, cell density increased in the fin rays and decreased in between.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264869&req=5

pone-0115076-g003: Visualization of average shape change together with average change of cell density.(A) Between 21 dpf and 40 dpf and (B) between 40 dpf and 56 dpf. The deformation grid shows how the shape of the fin changed from a rounded to a more triangular shape during both periods. Changes of cell density are represented by the color map. From 21 to 40 dpf, cell density increased (blue) in the fin, whereas it decreased (red) in the musculature and the notochord. From 40 to 56 dpf, cell density increased in the fin rays and decreased in between.
Mentions: The differences between the age groups, i.e., the developmental transformations, can explicitly be visualized by superimposing a thin-plate spline deformation grid, depicting developmental shape change, and a color map that represents increase or decrease of cell density. For this purpose, the full color information for each pixel was reduced to brightness (average of the RGB values). The higher the cell density (number of projected stained cell nuclei), the darker the pixel will appear and the lower the brightness will be. Fig. 3a shows the transformation from a rounded to a more triangular fin shape between 21 dpf and 40 dpf, which was associated with an average increase of cell density in the fin fold and a decrease of cell density in the musculature and the notochord. Between 40 dpf and 56 dpf, average cell density decreased in the musculature, the notochord, and also in between the fin rays, while density increased inside the fin rays (Fig. 3b).

Bottom Line: The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry.We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout.Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Theoretical Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstraße 14, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional embryonic images. Well-differentiated structures are described in terms of their shape, whereas structures with diffuse boundaries, such as emerging cell condensations or molecular gradients, are described as spatial patterns of intensities. We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout. Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus