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A hypothetical model of crossing Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus through its host midgut physical barrier.

Cheng Y, Wang XY, Hu H, Killiny N, Xu JP - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Twelve proteins were located and identified using mass spectrometry, and the different expression of the corresponding genes in BmNPV susceptible and resistant silkworm strains also indicated their involvement in BmNPV infection.The 12 proteins are grouped based on their potential roles in viral infection, for example, endocytosis, intracellular transportation, and host responses.Based on these results, we hypothesize the following: I) vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B may be implicated in the process of the membrane fusion of virus and the release of the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm; II) actin, enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase are cytoskeleton associated proteins and may play an important role in BmNPV intracellular transportation; III) mitochondrial prohibitin complex protein 2, ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein, calreticulin, regucalcin-like isoform X1 and 60 kDa heat shock protein are involved in cell apoptosis regulation during BmNPV infection in larvae midguts; IV) ribosomal P0 may be associated with BmNPV infection by regulating gene expression of BmNPV; V) arginine kinase has a role in the antiviral activities against BmNPV.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a primary pathogen of silkworm (B. mori) that causes severe economic losses each year. However, the molecular mechanisms of silkworm-BmNPV interactions, especially the silkworm proteins that can interact with the virus, are still largely unknown. In this study, the total and membrane proteins of silkworm midguts were displayed using one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. A virus overlay assay was used to detect B. mori proteins that specifically bind to BmNPV particles. Twelve proteins were located and identified using mass spectrometry, and the different expression of the corresponding genes in BmNPV susceptible and resistant silkworm strains also indicated their involvement in BmNPV infection. The 12 proteins are grouped based on their potential roles in viral infection, for example, endocytosis, intracellular transportation, and host responses. Based on these results, we hypothesize the following: I) vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B may be implicated in the process of the membrane fusion of virus and the release of the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm; II) actin, enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase are cytoskeleton associated proteins and may play an important role in BmNPV intracellular transportation; III) mitochondrial prohibitin complex protein 2, ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein, calreticulin, regucalcin-like isoform X1 and 60 kDa heat shock protein are involved in cell apoptosis regulation during BmNPV infection in larvae midguts; IV) ribosomal P0 may be associated with BmNPV infection by regulating gene expression of BmNPV; V) arginine kinase has a role in the antiviral activities against BmNPV. Our work should prove informative by providing multiple protein targets and a novel direction to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between silkworms and BmNPV.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Hypothesized roles of the identified BmNPV-binding proteins of B. mori in the virus infection process.The envelope contained BmNPV nucleocapsid binded to the cytomembrane, then endocytosis was triggered, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B on the endosome membrane could promote the fusion of the envelope and endosome to release the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. The released nucleocapsid was transported into the nucleus with the assistance of cytoskeleton (Actin, PGK and En). The virus DNA was released in the nucleus, and RP0 could regulate RNA expression of BmNPV. In the infection process, GDAP would trigger apotosis to inhibit BmNPV infection, while PHB2, CRT, RCX1 and HSP60 had the opposite effects.
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pone-0115032-g005: Hypothesized roles of the identified BmNPV-binding proteins of B. mori in the virus infection process.The envelope contained BmNPV nucleocapsid binded to the cytomembrane, then endocytosis was triggered, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B on the endosome membrane could promote the fusion of the envelope and endosome to release the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. The released nucleocapsid was transported into the nucleus with the assistance of cytoskeleton (Actin, PGK and En). The virus DNA was released in the nucleus, and RP0 could regulate RNA expression of BmNPV. In the infection process, GDAP would trigger apotosis to inhibit BmNPV infection, while PHB2, CRT, RCX1 and HSP60 had the opposite effects.

Mentions: Based on the results and analysis above, we hypothesize the roles of these binding proteins in the process of crossing BmNPV through silkworm midgut cells. The BmNPV nucleocapsid contained envelope binds to the cytomembrane, and endocytosis is triggered. Then ATP-A and ATP-B on the endosome membrane promote the fusion of the envelope and endosome to release the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm. The released nucleocapsid is transported into the nucleus by the assistance of cytoskeleton (Actin, PGK and En). The virus DNA is released in the nucleus, and RP0 could regulate RNA expression of BmNPV. In the infection process, GDAP would trigger apoptosis to inhibit BmNPV infection, while PHB2, CRT, RCX1 and HSP60 had the opposite effects (Fig. 5).


A hypothetical model of crossing Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus through its host midgut physical barrier.

Cheng Y, Wang XY, Hu H, Killiny N, Xu JP - PLoS ONE (2014)

Hypothesized roles of the identified BmNPV-binding proteins of B. mori in the virus infection process.The envelope contained BmNPV nucleocapsid binded to the cytomembrane, then endocytosis was triggered, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B on the endosome membrane could promote the fusion of the envelope and endosome to release the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. The released nucleocapsid was transported into the nucleus with the assistance of cytoskeleton (Actin, PGK and En). The virus DNA was released in the nucleus, and RP0 could regulate RNA expression of BmNPV. In the infection process, GDAP would trigger apotosis to inhibit BmNPV infection, while PHB2, CRT, RCX1 and HSP60 had the opposite effects.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264868&req=5

pone-0115032-g005: Hypothesized roles of the identified BmNPV-binding proteins of B. mori in the virus infection process.The envelope contained BmNPV nucleocapsid binded to the cytomembrane, then endocytosis was triggered, and vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B on the endosome membrane could promote the fusion of the envelope and endosome to release the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. The released nucleocapsid was transported into the nucleus with the assistance of cytoskeleton (Actin, PGK and En). The virus DNA was released in the nucleus, and RP0 could regulate RNA expression of BmNPV. In the infection process, GDAP would trigger apotosis to inhibit BmNPV infection, while PHB2, CRT, RCX1 and HSP60 had the opposite effects.
Mentions: Based on the results and analysis above, we hypothesize the roles of these binding proteins in the process of crossing BmNPV through silkworm midgut cells. The BmNPV nucleocapsid contained envelope binds to the cytomembrane, and endocytosis is triggered. Then ATP-A and ATP-B on the endosome membrane promote the fusion of the envelope and endosome to release the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm. The released nucleocapsid is transported into the nucleus by the assistance of cytoskeleton (Actin, PGK and En). The virus DNA is released in the nucleus, and RP0 could regulate RNA expression of BmNPV. In the infection process, GDAP would trigger apoptosis to inhibit BmNPV infection, while PHB2, CRT, RCX1 and HSP60 had the opposite effects (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: Twelve proteins were located and identified using mass spectrometry, and the different expression of the corresponding genes in BmNPV susceptible and resistant silkworm strains also indicated their involvement in BmNPV infection.The 12 proteins are grouped based on their potential roles in viral infection, for example, endocytosis, intracellular transportation, and host responses.Based on these results, we hypothesize the following: I) vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B may be implicated in the process of the membrane fusion of virus and the release of the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm; II) actin, enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase are cytoskeleton associated proteins and may play an important role in BmNPV intracellular transportation; III) mitochondrial prohibitin complex protein 2, ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein, calreticulin, regucalcin-like isoform X1 and 60 kDa heat shock protein are involved in cell apoptosis regulation during BmNPV infection in larvae midguts; IV) ribosomal P0 may be associated with BmNPV infection by regulating gene expression of BmNPV; V) arginine kinase has a role in the antiviral activities against BmNPV.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a primary pathogen of silkworm (B. mori) that causes severe economic losses each year. However, the molecular mechanisms of silkworm-BmNPV interactions, especially the silkworm proteins that can interact with the virus, are still largely unknown. In this study, the total and membrane proteins of silkworm midguts were displayed using one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis. A virus overlay assay was used to detect B. mori proteins that specifically bind to BmNPV particles. Twelve proteins were located and identified using mass spectrometry, and the different expression of the corresponding genes in BmNPV susceptible and resistant silkworm strains also indicated their involvement in BmNPV infection. The 12 proteins are grouped based on their potential roles in viral infection, for example, endocytosis, intracellular transportation, and host responses. Based on these results, we hypothesize the following: I) vacuolar ATP synthase catalytic subunit A and subunit B may be implicated in the process of the membrane fusion of virus and the release of the nucleocapsid into cytoplasm; II) actin, enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase are cytoskeleton associated proteins and may play an important role in BmNPV intracellular transportation; III) mitochondrial prohibitin complex protein 2, ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein, calreticulin, regucalcin-like isoform X1 and 60 kDa heat shock protein are involved in cell apoptosis regulation during BmNPV infection in larvae midguts; IV) ribosomal P0 may be associated with BmNPV infection by regulating gene expression of BmNPV; V) arginine kinase has a role in the antiviral activities against BmNPV. Our work should prove informative by providing multiple protein targets and a novel direction to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between silkworms and BmNPV.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus