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Wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) alleviate inflammation and hypertension associated with developing obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet.

Mykkänen OT, Huotari A, Herzig KH, Dunlop TW, Mykkänen H, Kirjavainen PV - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Low-grade metabolic inflammation and hypertension are primary mechanisms involved in obesity-associated adverse health effects.This was indicated by the altered cytokine profile and the reduced prevalence of interferon gamma -producing T-cells, in particular T helper type 1 cells.Bilberries reduce the development of systemic inflammation and prevent the progression of chronic hypertension, thus supporting their potential role in alleviating the adverse health effects associated with developing obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Low-grade metabolic inflammation and hypertension are primary mechanisms involved in obesity-associated adverse health effects. Berries, especially Nordic wild blueberries (hereafter referred to as bilberries), represent an important source of dietary anthocyanins, a group of polyphenols with potential beneficial effects to combat obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

Methods: The effects of 5% or 10% (w/w) of whole bilberries (BB) were studied on the development of obesity and its metabolic disturbances in C57BL mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for three months. Cytokines, inflammatory cells, systolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, body fat, food consumption and energy metabolism were assessed.

Results: Bilberries ameliorated type 1 pro-inflammatory responsiveness induced by HFD. This was indicated by the altered cytokine profile and the reduced prevalence of interferon gamma -producing T-cells, in particular T helper type 1 cells. Bilberries also prevented the progression of obesity associated long term increase in systolic blood pressure in mice.

Conclusions: Bilberries reduce the development of systemic inflammation and prevent the progression of chronic hypertension, thus supporting their potential role in alleviating the adverse health effects associated with developing obesity.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice fed with NCD, HFD or HFD with bilberries.The bars represent the means and SEM of n = 3–15 mice per diet group. The pleiotropic cytokines with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions are marked with a number sign (#). Asterisk (*) indicates the significant differences of HFD group from 5% BB and 10% BB in HFD groups (p<0.05, Mann Whitney U-Test with Bonferroni's correction).
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pone-0114790-g002: Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice fed with NCD, HFD or HFD with bilberries.The bars represent the means and SEM of n = 3–15 mice per diet group. The pleiotropic cytokines with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions are marked with a number sign (#). Asterisk (*) indicates the significant differences of HFD group from 5% BB and 10% BB in HFD groups (p<0.05, Mann Whitney U-Test with Bonferroni's correction).

Mentions: The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors are shown in Figure 2 and Table S4 in S1 Panel, supporting phenotypic characteristics. These levels were higher in HFD compared to NCD fed mice, but only with interleukin 13 (IL-13) the trend approached statistical significance (p<0.1). In contrast, the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-7 TNF-α, GM-CSF and MCP-1) tended to be lower with the BB supplemented diets. From these cytokines, MCP-1 was significantly reduced with both BB diets. G-CSF tended to increase with BB feeding. Since the detection of several cytokines, i.e. IL-1α, IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-15, was limited in mice with diets containing BB, we summarized the changes in functional categories of cytokines using the z-scores (Figure 3 and Figure S4 in S1 Panel, supporting phenotypic characteristics). The pro-inflammatory cytokines showed a mild increase after HFD vs. NCD (p<0.2), and the addition of BB to HFD seemed to prevent dose-dependently this increase in pro-inflammatory (Figure S4 in S1 Panel, supporting phenotypic characteristics) and T helper type 1 cytokines (Figure 3). Accordingly, the number of type 1 cells of all T cells was significantly reduced in 10% BB fed mice. Cytotoxic T cells and the ratio of Th1 to Th2 cells also showed a dose dependent reduction in BB fed mice (Figure 3). The percentage of NKT cells, mature NKT cells, INF-γ producing cells of all T cells, Th1/Th2 ratio and Th1 cells were all reduced in mice having 10% BB in HFD as compared to HFD alone (Table 4). In addition, the percentage of NKT of all cytotoxic cells was significantly lower in 10% BB in HFD than in HFD only (2.5±0.2 vs.7.0±1.2, p<0.05).


Wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) alleviate inflammation and hypertension associated with developing obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet.

Mykkänen OT, Huotari A, Herzig KH, Dunlop TW, Mykkänen H, Kirjavainen PV - PLoS ONE (2014)

Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice fed with NCD, HFD or HFD with bilberries.The bars represent the means and SEM of n = 3–15 mice per diet group. The pleiotropic cytokines with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions are marked with a number sign (#). Asterisk (*) indicates the significant differences of HFD group from 5% BB and 10% BB in HFD groups (p<0.05, Mann Whitney U-Test with Bonferroni's correction).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264776&req=5

pone-0114790-g002: Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice fed with NCD, HFD or HFD with bilberries.The bars represent the means and SEM of n = 3–15 mice per diet group. The pleiotropic cytokines with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions are marked with a number sign (#). Asterisk (*) indicates the significant differences of HFD group from 5% BB and 10% BB in HFD groups (p<0.05, Mann Whitney U-Test with Bonferroni's correction).
Mentions: The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors are shown in Figure 2 and Table S4 in S1 Panel, supporting phenotypic characteristics. These levels were higher in HFD compared to NCD fed mice, but only with interleukin 13 (IL-13) the trend approached statistical significance (p<0.1). In contrast, the levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-7 TNF-α, GM-CSF and MCP-1) tended to be lower with the BB supplemented diets. From these cytokines, MCP-1 was significantly reduced with both BB diets. G-CSF tended to increase with BB feeding. Since the detection of several cytokines, i.e. IL-1α, IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-15, was limited in mice with diets containing BB, we summarized the changes in functional categories of cytokines using the z-scores (Figure 3 and Figure S4 in S1 Panel, supporting phenotypic characteristics). The pro-inflammatory cytokines showed a mild increase after HFD vs. NCD (p<0.2), and the addition of BB to HFD seemed to prevent dose-dependently this increase in pro-inflammatory (Figure S4 in S1 Panel, supporting phenotypic characteristics) and T helper type 1 cytokines (Figure 3). Accordingly, the number of type 1 cells of all T cells was significantly reduced in 10% BB fed mice. Cytotoxic T cells and the ratio of Th1 to Th2 cells also showed a dose dependent reduction in BB fed mice (Figure 3). The percentage of NKT cells, mature NKT cells, INF-γ producing cells of all T cells, Th1/Th2 ratio and Th1 cells were all reduced in mice having 10% BB in HFD as compared to HFD alone (Table 4). In addition, the percentage of NKT of all cytotoxic cells was significantly lower in 10% BB in HFD than in HFD only (2.5±0.2 vs.7.0±1.2, p<0.05).

Bottom Line: Low-grade metabolic inflammation and hypertension are primary mechanisms involved in obesity-associated adverse health effects.This was indicated by the altered cytokine profile and the reduced prevalence of interferon gamma -producing T-cells, in particular T helper type 1 cells.Bilberries reduce the development of systemic inflammation and prevent the progression of chronic hypertension, thus supporting their potential role in alleviating the adverse health effects associated with developing obesity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Low-grade metabolic inflammation and hypertension are primary mechanisms involved in obesity-associated adverse health effects. Berries, especially Nordic wild blueberries (hereafter referred to as bilberries), represent an important source of dietary anthocyanins, a group of polyphenols with potential beneficial effects to combat obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

Methods: The effects of 5% or 10% (w/w) of whole bilberries (BB) were studied on the development of obesity and its metabolic disturbances in C57BL mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for three months. Cytokines, inflammatory cells, systolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, body fat, food consumption and energy metabolism were assessed.

Results: Bilberries ameliorated type 1 pro-inflammatory responsiveness induced by HFD. This was indicated by the altered cytokine profile and the reduced prevalence of interferon gamma -producing T-cells, in particular T helper type 1 cells. Bilberries also prevented the progression of obesity associated long term increase in systolic blood pressure in mice.

Conclusions: Bilberries reduce the development of systemic inflammation and prevent the progression of chronic hypertension, thus supporting their potential role in alleviating the adverse health effects associated with developing obesity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus