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Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study.

Lensink SE, Verdonschot RG, Schiller NO - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms.In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2.However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Humanities, Leiden University Centre for Linguistics, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands ; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Bilingual language control (BLC) is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an event-related potential (ERP) study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English). Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Grand Averages ERPs, superimposed for the opaque, transparent, and unrelated conditions in the switch block. The ERPs are time-locked to the onset of the target picture, and a 10 Hz low-pass filter was applied to smoothen the graphs. Negativity is plotted upward. Images were created with the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2014).
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Figure 5: Grand Averages ERPs, superimposed for the opaque, transparent, and unrelated conditions in the switch block. The ERPs are time-locked to the onset of the target picture, and a 10 Hz low-pass filter was applied to smoothen the graphs. Negativity is plotted upward. Images were created with the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2014).

Mentions: Although the behavioral data showed no difference between the non-switch and the switch block, the EEG data do (see Figures 4 and 5). In the non-switch block, the unrelated condition indicates an increased negativity around 400 ms post-stimulus onset in frontal regions, whereas in the switch block the transparent condition is indicating a reduced N400. As the graphs seem to show a different pattern for the non-switch and the switch block, and the factor Block was involved in significant interactions in both the lateral and midline regions, it was decided to perform separate analyses for the 400–575 ms time window for the non-switch and the switch block. For the midline electrodes, there was no significant interaction between Condition and Electrode in neither the non-switch nor the switch block, F(4,88) = 0.92, p = 0.42, and F(4,88) = 0.76, p = 0.50. Condition is a significant main effect only in the non-switch block, F(2,44) = 4.81, p = 0.01. Post hoc Tukey tests indicate that there is no difference between the opaque and transparent condition (p = 0.79), but that the unrelated condition is significantly different from the opaque condition (p = 0.01) and near-significant from the transparent condition (p = 0.08).


Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study.

Lensink SE, Verdonschot RG, Schiller NO - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Grand Averages ERPs, superimposed for the opaque, transparent, and unrelated conditions in the switch block. The ERPs are time-locked to the onset of the target picture, and a 10 Hz low-pass filter was applied to smoothen the graphs. Negativity is plotted upward. Images were created with the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2014).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264473&req=5

Figure 5: Grand Averages ERPs, superimposed for the opaque, transparent, and unrelated conditions in the switch block. The ERPs are time-locked to the onset of the target picture, and a 10 Hz low-pass filter was applied to smoothen the graphs. Negativity is plotted upward. Images were created with the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2014).
Mentions: Although the behavioral data showed no difference between the non-switch and the switch block, the EEG data do (see Figures 4 and 5). In the non-switch block, the unrelated condition indicates an increased negativity around 400 ms post-stimulus onset in frontal regions, whereas in the switch block the transparent condition is indicating a reduced N400. As the graphs seem to show a different pattern for the non-switch and the switch block, and the factor Block was involved in significant interactions in both the lateral and midline regions, it was decided to perform separate analyses for the 400–575 ms time window for the non-switch and the switch block. For the midline electrodes, there was no significant interaction between Condition and Electrode in neither the non-switch nor the switch block, F(4,88) = 0.92, p = 0.42, and F(4,88) = 0.76, p = 0.50. Condition is a significant main effect only in the non-switch block, F(2,44) = 4.81, p = 0.01. Post hoc Tukey tests indicate that there is no difference between the opaque and transparent condition (p = 0.79), but that the unrelated condition is significantly different from the opaque condition (p = 0.01) and near-significant from the transparent condition (p = 0.08).

Bottom Line: Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms.In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2.However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Humanities, Leiden University Centre for Linguistics, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands ; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Leiden, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Bilingual language control (BLC) is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an event-related potential (ERP) study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English). Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus