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Review of transducer principles for label-free biomolecular interaction analysis.

Nirschl M, Reuter F, Vörös J - Biosensors (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: Starting from optical technologies like the SPR and waveguide based sensors, acoustic sensors like the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), calorimetric and electrochemical sensors are covered.Technologies long established in the market are presented together with those newly commercially available and with technologies in the early development stage.Finally, the commercially available instruments are summarized together with their sensitivity and the number of sensors usable in parallel and an outlook for potential future developments is given.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. nirschlm@ethz.ch.

ABSTRACT
Label-free biomolecular interaction analysis is an important technique to study the chemical binding between e.g., protein and protein or protein and small molecule in real-time. The parameters obtained with this technique, such as the affinity, are important for drug development. While the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instruments are most widely used, new types of sensors are emerging. These developments are generally driven by the need for higher throughput, lower sample consumption or by the need of complimentary information to the SPR data. This review aims to give an overview about a wide range of sensor transducers, the working principles and the peculiarities of each technology, e.g., concerning the set-up, sensitivity, sensor size or required sample volume. Starting from optical technologies like the SPR and waveguide based sensors, acoustic sensors like the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), calorimetric and electrochemical sensors are covered. Technologies long established in the market are presented together with those newly commercially available and with technologies in the early development stage. Finally, the commercially available instruments are summarized together with their sensitivity and the number of sensors usable in parallel and an outlook for potential future developments is given.

No MeSH data available.


Set-up of the ellipsometry (ELM) (a) and the surface plasmon enhanced ELM (b). Reproduced from [81,82] with permission from Elsevier.
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biosensors-01-00070-f009: Set-up of the ellipsometry (ELM) (a) and the surface plasmon enhanced ELM (b). Reproduced from [81,82] with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Ellipsometry (ELM) is a technique that measures the changes in the state of polarization of elliptically polarized light, which is reflected at planar surfaces (Figure 9) [79]. If the available measurement data is very accurate, both the refractive index and the thickness of the adsorbed layer can be obtained from the changes in the ellipsometric angles [80]. Assuming that the refractive index of protein films is around 1.5 the film thickness can be calculated more easily [76]. The complex theory behind the calculations, especially if systems with unknown optical properties are investigated, together with the requirement of reflecting surfaces might be named as main disadvantages of this technique.


Review of transducer principles for label-free biomolecular interaction analysis.

Nirschl M, Reuter F, Vörös J - Biosensors (Basel) (2011)

Set-up of the ellipsometry (ELM) (a) and the surface plasmon enhanced ELM (b). Reproduced from [81,82] with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264362&req=5

biosensors-01-00070-f009: Set-up of the ellipsometry (ELM) (a) and the surface plasmon enhanced ELM (b). Reproduced from [81,82] with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Ellipsometry (ELM) is a technique that measures the changes in the state of polarization of elliptically polarized light, which is reflected at planar surfaces (Figure 9) [79]. If the available measurement data is very accurate, both the refractive index and the thickness of the adsorbed layer can be obtained from the changes in the ellipsometric angles [80]. Assuming that the refractive index of protein films is around 1.5 the film thickness can be calculated more easily [76]. The complex theory behind the calculations, especially if systems with unknown optical properties are investigated, together with the requirement of reflecting surfaces might be named as main disadvantages of this technique.

Bottom Line: Starting from optical technologies like the SPR and waveguide based sensors, acoustic sensors like the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), calorimetric and electrochemical sensors are covered.Technologies long established in the market are presented together with those newly commercially available and with technologies in the early development stage.Finally, the commercially available instruments are summarized together with their sensitivity and the number of sensors usable in parallel and an outlook for potential future developments is given.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. nirschlm@ethz.ch.

ABSTRACT
Label-free biomolecular interaction analysis is an important technique to study the chemical binding between e.g., protein and protein or protein and small molecule in real-time. The parameters obtained with this technique, such as the affinity, are important for drug development. While the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instruments are most widely used, new types of sensors are emerging. These developments are generally driven by the need for higher throughput, lower sample consumption or by the need of complimentary information to the SPR data. This review aims to give an overview about a wide range of sensor transducers, the working principles and the peculiarities of each technology, e.g., concerning the set-up, sensitivity, sensor size or required sample volume. Starting from optical technologies like the SPR and waveguide based sensors, acoustic sensors like the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and the film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), calorimetric and electrochemical sensors are covered. Technologies long established in the market are presented together with those newly commercially available and with technologies in the early development stage. Finally, the commercially available instruments are summarized together with their sensitivity and the number of sensors usable in parallel and an outlook for potential future developments is given.

No MeSH data available.