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Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives.

Liang C, Gooneratne CP, Wang QX, Liu Y, Gianchandani Y, Kosel J - Biosensors (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration.When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained.The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, 4700 Kaust, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia; E-Mails: chinthaka.gooneratne@gmail.com (C.P.G.); jurgen.kosel@kaust.edu.sa (J.K.).

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

AFM and MFM images (size: 3 µm × 3 µm) of FeNiAl thin films in 3D visualization.
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biosensors-04-00189-f006: AFM and MFM images (size: 3 µm × 3 µm) of FeNiAl thin films in 3D visualization.

Mentions: The out-of-plane magnetic properties were characterized by MFM. Figure 5 shows the 2D and 3D images of AFM and MFM for a FeNi film without any additives. It can be seen that the MFM images are significantly different from their counterpart AFM images both in 2D and 3D. Maze-like domain features exhibited in the MFM images are due to the strong perpendicular anisotropy in the film. For a better comparison and visualization, only 3D images of AFM and MFM are used for FeNi films with additives. Figure 6, Figure 7 and Figure 8 show the 3D images of FeNi films deposited with Al, Mo and B of various concentrations. The AFM images of FeNiAl showing a rough surface correspond well with the SEM images in Figure 1. The MFM images are significantly different from their AFM images, regardless of whether there are domain features in FeNiAl and FeNiMo or no domain features in FeNiB thin films. In the case of FeNiAl thin films, the out-of-plane magnetic components do not vanish with the increase of Al concentration, as can be seen in the Figure 6. It is sustained even at an Al concentration as high as 26.9 at%. Figure 7 show that the MFM images of FeNiMo change with the increase of Mo concentration; the visibility of domain features in FeNiMo decreases, and they nearly disappear when the concentration reaches 11.3 at%. In Figure 8, the MFM images of FeNiB films do not show the domain features. The AFM images reveal that these materials have a very fine and smooth surface topography, which agrees well with the SEM images in Figure 1g–i. These results show that depositing with B effectively breaks down the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi. In contrast, depositing with Al does not have this effect, and the magnetic anisotropy of FeNiMo films is found to depend on the concentration of Mo and is reduced at a higher concentration level, as also reported in [10].


Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives.

Liang C, Gooneratne CP, Wang QX, Liu Y, Gianchandani Y, Kosel J - Biosensors (Basel) (2014)

AFM and MFM images (size: 3 µm × 3 µm) of FeNiAl thin films in 3D visualization.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264354&req=5

biosensors-04-00189-f006: AFM and MFM images (size: 3 µm × 3 µm) of FeNiAl thin films in 3D visualization.
Mentions: The out-of-plane magnetic properties were characterized by MFM. Figure 5 shows the 2D and 3D images of AFM and MFM for a FeNi film without any additives. It can be seen that the MFM images are significantly different from their counterpart AFM images both in 2D and 3D. Maze-like domain features exhibited in the MFM images are due to the strong perpendicular anisotropy in the film. For a better comparison and visualization, only 3D images of AFM and MFM are used for FeNi films with additives. Figure 6, Figure 7 and Figure 8 show the 3D images of FeNi films deposited with Al, Mo and B of various concentrations. The AFM images of FeNiAl showing a rough surface correspond well with the SEM images in Figure 1. The MFM images are significantly different from their AFM images, regardless of whether there are domain features in FeNiAl and FeNiMo or no domain features in FeNiB thin films. In the case of FeNiAl thin films, the out-of-plane magnetic components do not vanish with the increase of Al concentration, as can be seen in the Figure 6. It is sustained even at an Al concentration as high as 26.9 at%. Figure 7 show that the MFM images of FeNiMo change with the increase of Mo concentration; the visibility of domain features in FeNiMo decreases, and they nearly disappear when the concentration reaches 11.3 at%. In Figure 8, the MFM images of FeNiB films do not show the domain features. The AFM images reveal that these materials have a very fine and smooth surface topography, which agrees well with the SEM images in Figure 1g–i. These results show that depositing with B effectively breaks down the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi. In contrast, depositing with Al does not have this effect, and the magnetic anisotropy of FeNiMo films is found to depend on the concentration of Mo and is reduced at a higher concentration level, as also reported in [10].

Bottom Line: The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration.When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained.The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, 4700 Kaust, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia; E-Mails: chinthaka.gooneratne@gmail.com (C.P.G.); jurgen.kosel@kaust.edu.sa (J.K.).

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus