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Role of microbial and chemical composition in toxicological properties of indoor and outdoor air particulate matter.

Happo MS, Sippula O, Jalava PI, Rintala H, Leskinen A, Komppula M, Kuuspalo K, Mikkonen S, Lehtinen K, Jokiniemi J, Hirvonen MR - Part Fibre Toxicol (2014)

Bottom Line: Even though there were clear seasonal differences in the abilities of indoor and outdoor air to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, there were relatively small differences in the chemical composition of the particles responsible of those effects.Outdoor sources have only a limited effect on indoor air quality in a newly built house with a modern ventilation system at least in a low air pollution environment.The most important sources for adverse health related toxicological effects were related to soil-derived constituents, local combustion emissions and microbes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. mikko.happo@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ambient air particulate matter (PM) is increasingly considered to be a causal factor evoking severe adverse health effects. People spend the majority of their time indoors, which should be taken into account especially in future risk assessments, when the role of outdoor air particles transported into indoor air is considered. Therefore, there is an urgent need for characterization of possible sources seasonally for harmful health outcomes both indoors and outdoors.

Methods: In this study, we collected size-segregated (PM(10-2.5), PM(2.5-0.2)) particulate samples with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) simultaneously both indoors and outdoors of a new single family detached house at four different seasons. The chemical composition of the samples was analyzed as was the presence of microbes. Mouse macrophages were exposed to PM samples for 24 hours. Thereafter, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, NO-production, cytotoxicity and changes in the cell cycle were investigated. The putative sources of the most toxic groups of constituents were resolved by using the principal component analysis (PCA) and pairwise dependencies of the variables were detected with Spearman correlation.

Results: Source-related toxicological responses clearly varied according to season. The role of outdoor sources in indoor air quality was significant only in the warm seasons and the significance of outdoor microbes was also larger in the indoor air. During wintertime, the role of indoor sources of the particles was more significant, as was also the case for microbes. With respect to the outdoor sources, soil-derived particles during a road dust episode and local wood combustion in wintertime were the most important factors inducing toxicological responses.

Conclusions: Even though there were clear seasonal differences in the abilities of indoor and outdoor air to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, there were relatively small differences in the chemical composition of the particles responsible of those effects. Outdoor sources have only a limited effect on indoor air quality in a newly built house with a modern ventilation system at least in a low air pollution environment. The most important sources for adverse health related toxicological effects were related to soil-derived constituents, local combustion emissions and microbes.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The correlation between total PAH concentration (PC2, local combustion related constituents) in the PM10–2.5and PM2.5–0.2samples and inflammatory (A; TNF-α) and cytotoxicity (B; MTT) responses in mouse macrophages after exposure to three different doses (50, 150 and 300 μg/ml for 24 h) of indoor or outdoor air PM samples. The Pearson correlation coefficients are shown in the figure panel. Seasons are differentiated by colors (blue = winter, green = spring, yellow = summer, red = autumn). X-axis and Y-axis (A) are presented in logarithmic scale and Y-axis (B) in linear scale.
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Fig2: The correlation between total PAH concentration (PC2, local combustion related constituents) in the PM10–2.5and PM2.5–0.2samples and inflammatory (A; TNF-α) and cytotoxicity (B; MTT) responses in mouse macrophages after exposure to three different doses (50, 150 and 300 μg/ml for 24 h) of indoor or outdoor air PM samples. The Pearson correlation coefficients are shown in the figure panel. Seasons are differentiated by colors (blue = winter, green = spring, yellow = summer, red = autumn). X-axis and Y-axis (A) are presented in logarithmic scale and Y-axis (B) in linear scale.

Mentions: In contrast, PAH-compounds, SO4 and NO3 exhibited a negative correlation with the inflammatory markers (Figure 2). Interestingly, PAHs and SO4 did not correlate with the cytotoxicity markers, but showed a positive association with the SubG1 phase, indicating that they were influencing the early apoptotic rather than late apoptotic or necrotic cell death. A comparison of this result to the PC1 correlations reveals a clear difference in the cell death mechanisms being activated by these different groups.Figure 2


Role of microbial and chemical composition in toxicological properties of indoor and outdoor air particulate matter.

Happo MS, Sippula O, Jalava PI, Rintala H, Leskinen A, Komppula M, Kuuspalo K, Mikkonen S, Lehtinen K, Jokiniemi J, Hirvonen MR - Part Fibre Toxicol (2014)

The correlation between total PAH concentration (PC2, local combustion related constituents) in the PM10–2.5and PM2.5–0.2samples and inflammatory (A; TNF-α) and cytotoxicity (B; MTT) responses in mouse macrophages after exposure to three different doses (50, 150 and 300 μg/ml for 24 h) of indoor or outdoor air PM samples. The Pearson correlation coefficients are shown in the figure panel. Seasons are differentiated by colors (blue = winter, green = spring, yellow = summer, red = autumn). X-axis and Y-axis (A) are presented in logarithmic scale and Y-axis (B) in linear scale.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264261&req=5

Fig2: The correlation between total PAH concentration (PC2, local combustion related constituents) in the PM10–2.5and PM2.5–0.2samples and inflammatory (A; TNF-α) and cytotoxicity (B; MTT) responses in mouse macrophages after exposure to three different doses (50, 150 and 300 μg/ml for 24 h) of indoor or outdoor air PM samples. The Pearson correlation coefficients are shown in the figure panel. Seasons are differentiated by colors (blue = winter, green = spring, yellow = summer, red = autumn). X-axis and Y-axis (A) are presented in logarithmic scale and Y-axis (B) in linear scale.
Mentions: In contrast, PAH-compounds, SO4 and NO3 exhibited a negative correlation with the inflammatory markers (Figure 2). Interestingly, PAHs and SO4 did not correlate with the cytotoxicity markers, but showed a positive association with the SubG1 phase, indicating that they were influencing the early apoptotic rather than late apoptotic or necrotic cell death. A comparison of this result to the PC1 correlations reveals a clear difference in the cell death mechanisms being activated by these different groups.Figure 2

Bottom Line: Even though there were clear seasonal differences in the abilities of indoor and outdoor air to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, there were relatively small differences in the chemical composition of the particles responsible of those effects.Outdoor sources have only a limited effect on indoor air quality in a newly built house with a modern ventilation system at least in a low air pollution environment.The most important sources for adverse health related toxicological effects were related to soil-derived constituents, local combustion emissions and microbes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland. mikko.happo@uef.fi.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ambient air particulate matter (PM) is increasingly considered to be a causal factor evoking severe adverse health effects. People spend the majority of their time indoors, which should be taken into account especially in future risk assessments, when the role of outdoor air particles transported into indoor air is considered. Therefore, there is an urgent need for characterization of possible sources seasonally for harmful health outcomes both indoors and outdoors.

Methods: In this study, we collected size-segregated (PM(10-2.5), PM(2.5-0.2)) particulate samples with a high volume cascade impactor (HVCI) simultaneously both indoors and outdoors of a new single family detached house at four different seasons. The chemical composition of the samples was analyzed as was the presence of microbes. Mouse macrophages were exposed to PM samples for 24 hours. Thereafter, the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, NO-production, cytotoxicity and changes in the cell cycle were investigated. The putative sources of the most toxic groups of constituents were resolved by using the principal component analysis (PCA) and pairwise dependencies of the variables were detected with Spearman correlation.

Results: Source-related toxicological responses clearly varied according to season. The role of outdoor sources in indoor air quality was significant only in the warm seasons and the significance of outdoor microbes was also larger in the indoor air. During wintertime, the role of indoor sources of the particles was more significant, as was also the case for microbes. With respect to the outdoor sources, soil-derived particles during a road dust episode and local wood combustion in wintertime were the most important factors inducing toxicological responses.

Conclusions: Even though there were clear seasonal differences in the abilities of indoor and outdoor air to induce inflammatory and cytotoxic responses, there were relatively small differences in the chemical composition of the particles responsible of those effects. Outdoor sources have only a limited effect on indoor air quality in a newly built house with a modern ventilation system at least in a low air pollution environment. The most important sources for adverse health related toxicological effects were related to soil-derived constituents, local combustion emissions and microbes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus