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Embryonic development of the hypothalamic feeding circuitry: Transcriptional, nutritional, and hormonal influences.

MacKay H, Abizaid A - Mol Metab (2014)

Bottom Line: Embryonic neurogenesis and differentiation in the hypothalamic feeding circuitry is under the control of a variety of diffused morphogens and intrinsic transcription factors, leading to the unique structural and functional characteristics of each nucleus.The transcriptional regulation of the development of feeding neuroendocrine systems during the period of embryonic neurogenesis and differentiation will be reviewed here, with a special emphasis on genetic and environmental manipulations that yield an adverse metabolic phenotype.Leptin is neurotrophic in the embryonic brain, and given that it varies in proportion to maternal energy balance, may mediate these effects through an interaction with the mechanisms of hypothalamic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Embryonic neurogenesis and differentiation in the hypothalamic feeding circuitry is under the control of a variety of diffused morphogens and intrinsic transcription factors, leading to the unique structural and functional characteristics of each nucleus.

Scope of review: The transcriptional regulation of the development of feeding neuroendocrine systems during the period of embryonic neurogenesis and differentiation will be reviewed here, with a special emphasis on genetic and environmental manipulations that yield an adverse metabolic phenotype.

Major conclusions: Emerging data suggest that developmental mechanisms can be perturbed not only by genetic manipulation, but also by manipulations to maternal nutrition during the gestational period, leading to long-lasting behavioral, neurobiological, and metabolic consequences. Leptin is neurotrophic in the embryonic brain, and given that it varies in proportion to maternal energy balance, may mediate these effects through an interaction with the mechanisms of hypothalamic development.

No MeSH data available.


Expression timeline of transcription factors directly implicated in the generation of the hypothalamic feeding nuclei.
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fig1: Expression timeline of transcription factors directly implicated in the generation of the hypothalamic feeding nuclei.

Mentions: Neural tube development can be divided into stages, the first of which is regionalization. During the period prior to embryonic day 10 (E10), the diencephalic region is separated from surrounding regions by the influence of organizing signals such as Wingless/integrins (Wnts), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs), culminating ultimately in the induction of the NK2 homeobox transcription factor Nkx2.1 — a key marker of hypothalamic tissue (for review, see Ref. [2]). The subsequent neurogenic period encompasses E12-16 [3,4]. During the neurogenic period, neural stem cells in the ventricular zone give rise to neural precursors which, under the influence of factors discussed in this review, go on to assume their mature phenotype and position. Neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes all derive from the same progenitor pool, so the proneural transcription factors that characterize the neurogenic period simultaneously drive neurogenesis and suppress gliogenesis (for review, see Ref. [5]). This review will begin by covering medially situated nuclei, though it should be noted that neurogenesis in the hypothalamus proceeds in an ‘outside-in’ fashion, with laterally situated nuclei being born earlier [6] (Figure 1).


Embryonic development of the hypothalamic feeding circuitry: Transcriptional, nutritional, and hormonal influences.

MacKay H, Abizaid A - Mol Metab (2014)

Expression timeline of transcription factors directly implicated in the generation of the hypothalamic feeding nuclei.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4264037&req=5

fig1: Expression timeline of transcription factors directly implicated in the generation of the hypothalamic feeding nuclei.
Mentions: Neural tube development can be divided into stages, the first of which is regionalization. During the period prior to embryonic day 10 (E10), the diencephalic region is separated from surrounding regions by the influence of organizing signals such as Wingless/integrins (Wnts), Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs), culminating ultimately in the induction of the NK2 homeobox transcription factor Nkx2.1 — a key marker of hypothalamic tissue (for review, see Ref. [2]). The subsequent neurogenic period encompasses E12-16 [3,4]. During the neurogenic period, neural stem cells in the ventricular zone give rise to neural precursors which, under the influence of factors discussed in this review, go on to assume their mature phenotype and position. Neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes all derive from the same progenitor pool, so the proneural transcription factors that characterize the neurogenic period simultaneously drive neurogenesis and suppress gliogenesis (for review, see Ref. [5]). This review will begin by covering medially situated nuclei, though it should be noted that neurogenesis in the hypothalamus proceeds in an ‘outside-in’ fashion, with laterally situated nuclei being born earlier [6] (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Embryonic neurogenesis and differentiation in the hypothalamic feeding circuitry is under the control of a variety of diffused morphogens and intrinsic transcription factors, leading to the unique structural and functional characteristics of each nucleus.The transcriptional regulation of the development of feeding neuroendocrine systems during the period of embryonic neurogenesis and differentiation will be reviewed here, with a special emphasis on genetic and environmental manipulations that yield an adverse metabolic phenotype.Leptin is neurotrophic in the embryonic brain, and given that it varies in proportion to maternal energy balance, may mediate these effects through an interaction with the mechanisms of hypothalamic development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Embryonic neurogenesis and differentiation in the hypothalamic feeding circuitry is under the control of a variety of diffused morphogens and intrinsic transcription factors, leading to the unique structural and functional characteristics of each nucleus.

Scope of review: The transcriptional regulation of the development of feeding neuroendocrine systems during the period of embryonic neurogenesis and differentiation will be reviewed here, with a special emphasis on genetic and environmental manipulations that yield an adverse metabolic phenotype.

Major conclusions: Emerging data suggest that developmental mechanisms can be perturbed not only by genetic manipulation, but also by manipulations to maternal nutrition during the gestational period, leading to long-lasting behavioral, neurobiological, and metabolic consequences. Leptin is neurotrophic in the embryonic brain, and given that it varies in proportion to maternal energy balance, may mediate these effects through an interaction with the mechanisms of hypothalamic development.

No MeSH data available.