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A systematic review and meta-analysis of mobile devices and weight loss with an intervention content analysis.

Lyzwinski LN - J Pers Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found.Mobile devices appear to induce positive changes in the behavioural determinants of weight and subsequently are associated with weight loss.The use of theory appears to effectively enhance levels of constructs targeted by interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MPhil Public Health, BA Health Science, Department of Public Health, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 OBN, UK. lnl25@cam.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions.

Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen's d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed.

Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252-0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being Social Cognitive Theory, Elaboration Likelihood Theory, Control Theory, and Goal Theory. The use of behavioural change techniques was widespread across the studies, with a minimum of five per intervention.

Conclusion: Mobile devices appear to induce positive changes in the behavioural determinants of weight and subsequently are associated with weight loss. Mobile device interventions are heavily informed by theory and behaviour change techniques. The use of theory appears to effectively enhance levels of constructs targeted by interventions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BCT and Theory Connection in Reviewed Trials.
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jpm-04-00311-f005: BCT and Theory Connection in Reviewed Trials.

Mentions: Figure 5 adapted from information on theory coding and BCT linkage in Michie and Abraham [52] and applied to these findings, summarizes patterns of theory and BCT connections in this review. A given theory may have several behavioural change techniques as represented by the alpha numerical characters representing techniques A, B, and C. Not all interventions have adopted all techniques associated with a given theory as found in this review. Several theories can be applied to an intervention as found in this review, represented by A, B, and C. The use of theory found in this review may also be implicit or explicit. Several theories with select techniques may be adopted by an intervention, represented by the input function. The techniques then target the given behaviours such as physical activity and diet, with the output function of weight loss. For instance, social cognitive theory has elements of provision of instruction, general encouragement, barrier identification, and modelling of behaviour [52]. For example, an intervention may utilize only prompting encouragement from social cognitive theory, without other BCTs such as modelling of behaviour, and combine it with goal setting, self-monitoring, and feedback from control theory, which may or may not be explicitly mentioned.


A systematic review and meta-analysis of mobile devices and weight loss with an intervention content analysis.

Lyzwinski LN - J Pers Med (2014)

BCT and Theory Connection in Reviewed Trials.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263963&req=5

jpm-04-00311-f005: BCT and Theory Connection in Reviewed Trials.
Mentions: Figure 5 adapted from information on theory coding and BCT linkage in Michie and Abraham [52] and applied to these findings, summarizes patterns of theory and BCT connections in this review. A given theory may have several behavioural change techniques as represented by the alpha numerical characters representing techniques A, B, and C. Not all interventions have adopted all techniques associated with a given theory as found in this review. Several theories can be applied to an intervention as found in this review, represented by A, B, and C. The use of theory found in this review may also be implicit or explicit. Several theories with select techniques may be adopted by an intervention, represented by the input function. The techniques then target the given behaviours such as physical activity and diet, with the output function of weight loss. For instance, social cognitive theory has elements of provision of instruction, general encouragement, barrier identification, and modelling of behaviour [52]. For example, an intervention may utilize only prompting encouragement from social cognitive theory, without other BCTs such as modelling of behaviour, and combine it with goal setting, self-monitoring, and feedback from control theory, which may or may not be explicitly mentioned.

Bottom Line: Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found.Mobile devices appear to induce positive changes in the behavioural determinants of weight and subsequently are associated with weight loss.The use of theory appears to effectively enhance levels of constructs targeted by interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MPhil Public Health, BA Health Science, Department of Public Health, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 OBN, UK. lnl25@cam.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions.

Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen's d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed.

Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252-0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being Social Cognitive Theory, Elaboration Likelihood Theory, Control Theory, and Goal Theory. The use of behavioural change techniques was widespread across the studies, with a minimum of five per intervention.

Conclusion: Mobile devices appear to induce positive changes in the behavioural determinants of weight and subsequently are associated with weight loss. Mobile device interventions are heavily informed by theory and behaviour change techniques. The use of theory appears to effectively enhance levels of constructs targeted by interventions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus