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Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

Yu SH, Huang CY, Lee SD, Hsu MF, Wang RY, Kao CL, Kuo CH - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng.In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, Yilan County, Taiwan, Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase) levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg) of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg) was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Antioxidant enzymes in soleus muscle.(A) Representative western blot showing protein levels of MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, GCS and GPx1 extracted from soleus muscle. (B–E) Bars represent the relative protein quantification of MnSOD (B), Cu/ZnSOD (C), GCS (D) and GPx1 (E) normalized to GAPDH. In (B–E), data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
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pone-0114649-g006: Antioxidant enzymes in soleus muscle.(A) Representative western blot showing protein levels of MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, GCS and GPx1 extracted from soleus muscle. (B–E) Bars represent the relative protein quantification of MnSOD (B), Cu/ZnSOD (C), GCS (D) and GPx1 (E) normalized to GAPDH. In (B–E), data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.

Mentions: Antioxidant enzymes, including MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, GCS and GPx, were evaluated in muscle as shown in Fig. 6. Muscle MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD were unaffected by EE-challenge (Figs. 6A–6C). MnSOD protein levels in both sedentary and EE-challenged rats were significantly decreased below saline control levels with 120 mg/kg DS treatment (Figs. 6A and 6B). No significant effects of DS on Cu/ZnSOD protein levels were observed (Figs. 6A and 6C). In non-exercise control rats, muscle GCS protein levels were increased with DS treatment in a dose-dependent manner relative to the saline control (Figs. 6A and 6D). Among saline-control rats, EE-challenge resulted in a significant increase in GCS protein levels over sedentary control levels. However, this increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by DS treatment. Only low a dose of DS treatment resulted in increased muscle GPx (Fig. 6E). No effect on GPx was observed with EE-challenge.


Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

Yu SH, Huang CY, Lee SD, Hsu MF, Wang RY, Kao CL, Kuo CH - PLoS ONE (2014)

Antioxidant enzymes in soleus muscle.(A) Representative western blot showing protein levels of MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, GCS and GPx1 extracted from soleus muscle. (B–E) Bars represent the relative protein quantification of MnSOD (B), Cu/ZnSOD (C), GCS (D) and GPx1 (E) normalized to GAPDH. In (B–E), data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263678&req=5

pone-0114649-g006: Antioxidant enzymes in soleus muscle.(A) Representative western blot showing protein levels of MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, GCS and GPx1 extracted from soleus muscle. (B–E) Bars represent the relative protein quantification of MnSOD (B), Cu/ZnSOD (C), GCS (D) and GPx1 (E) normalized to GAPDH. In (B–E), data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
Mentions: Antioxidant enzymes, including MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, GCS and GPx, were evaluated in muscle as shown in Fig. 6. Muscle MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD were unaffected by EE-challenge (Figs. 6A–6C). MnSOD protein levels in both sedentary and EE-challenged rats were significantly decreased below saline control levels with 120 mg/kg DS treatment (Figs. 6A and 6B). No significant effects of DS on Cu/ZnSOD protein levels were observed (Figs. 6A and 6C). In non-exercise control rats, muscle GCS protein levels were increased with DS treatment in a dose-dependent manner relative to the saline control (Figs. 6A and 6D). Among saline-control rats, EE-challenge resulted in a significant increase in GCS protein levels over sedentary control levels. However, this increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by DS treatment. Only low a dose of DS treatment resulted in increased muscle GPx (Fig. 6E). No effect on GPx was observed with EE-challenge.

Bottom Line: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng.In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, Yilan County, Taiwan, Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase) levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg) of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg) was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus