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Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

Yu SH, Huang CY, Lee SD, Hsu MF, Wang RY, Kao CL, Kuo CH - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng.In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, Yilan County, Taiwan, Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase) levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg) of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg) was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

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NFκB pathway.(A) Representative western blot showing protein levels of total and phosphorylated IKKα, IκBα and NFκB extracted from soleus muscle. (B–E) Bars represent relative protein quantification of p-IKK/IKK, p-IκBα/IκBα, total IκBα and p-NFκB/NFκB normalized to GAPDH. In (B–E), and data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
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pone-0114649-g004: NFκB pathway.(A) Representative western blot showing protein levels of total and phosphorylated IKKα, IκBα and NFκB extracted from soleus muscle. (B–E) Bars represent relative protein quantification of p-IKK/IKK, p-IκBα/IκBα, total IκBα and p-NFκB/NFκB normalized to GAPDH. In (B–E), and data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.

Mentions: The NFκB signaling data are shown in Fig. 4. Representative radioactivity is displayed in Fig. 4A using GAPDH as an internal standard. Among saline control rats, p-IKK/IKK (Fig. 4B), p-IκB/IκB (Fig. 4D) and p-NFκB/NFκB (Fig. 4E) levels in muscle of the EE-challenged group were greater than those in the non-exercise control group. IκB was changed in the opposite direction. These changes were attenuated in DS-treated rats at all doses (Fig. 4C). Among non-exercise rats, the 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg doses of DS resulted in a significant increase in p-IKK/IKK (Fig. 4B) and p-NFκB/NFκB (Fig. 4E) above saline control levels in muscle. Conversely, DS treatment significantly decreased IκB expression below saline control levels in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 4C). p-IκB/IκB levels in muscle for all DS-treated rats were significantly greater than those in saline control rats (Fig. 4D).


Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

Yu SH, Huang CY, Lee SD, Hsu MF, Wang RY, Kao CL, Kuo CH - PLoS ONE (2014)

NFκB pathway.(A) Representative western blot showing protein levels of total and phosphorylated IKKα, IκBα and NFκB extracted from soleus muscle. (B–E) Bars represent relative protein quantification of p-IKK/IKK, p-IκBα/IκBα, total IκBα and p-NFκB/NFκB normalized to GAPDH. In (B–E), and data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263678&req=5

pone-0114649-g004: NFκB pathway.(A) Representative western blot showing protein levels of total and phosphorylated IKKα, IκBα and NFκB extracted from soleus muscle. (B–E) Bars represent relative protein quantification of p-IKK/IKK, p-IκBα/IκBα, total IκBα and p-NFκB/NFκB normalized to GAPDH. In (B–E), and data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
Mentions: The NFκB signaling data are shown in Fig. 4. Representative radioactivity is displayed in Fig. 4A using GAPDH as an internal standard. Among saline control rats, p-IKK/IKK (Fig. 4B), p-IκB/IκB (Fig. 4D) and p-NFκB/NFκB (Fig. 4E) levels in muscle of the EE-challenged group were greater than those in the non-exercise control group. IκB was changed in the opposite direction. These changes were attenuated in DS-treated rats at all doses (Fig. 4C). Among non-exercise rats, the 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg doses of DS resulted in a significant increase in p-IKK/IKK (Fig. 4B) and p-NFκB/NFκB (Fig. 4E) above saline control levels in muscle. Conversely, DS treatment significantly decreased IκB expression below saline control levels in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 4C). p-IκB/IκB levels in muscle for all DS-treated rats were significantly greater than those in saline control rats (Fig. 4D).

Bottom Line: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng.In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, Yilan County, Taiwan, Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase) levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg) of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg) was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus