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Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

Yu SH, Huang CY, Lee SD, Hsu MF, Wang RY, Kao CL, Kuo CH - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng.In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, Yilan County, Taiwan, Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase) levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg) of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg) was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

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Inflammatory gene and cytokine expression in soleus muscle.(A–E) Bars represent the relative quantification of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA expression levels normalized to 18S rRNA. (F) Representative western blot showing protein levels of iNOS and eNOS extracted from soleus muscle. (G–H) Bars represent the relative protein quantification of iNOS (G) and eNOS (H) normalized to GAPDH. In (A–E, G–H), and data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
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pone-0114649-g003: Inflammatory gene and cytokine expression in soleus muscle.(A–E) Bars represent the relative quantification of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA expression levels normalized to 18S rRNA. (F) Representative western blot showing protein levels of iNOS and eNOS extracted from soleus muscle. (G–H) Bars represent the relative protein quantification of iNOS (G) and eNOS (H) normalized to GAPDH. In (A–E, G–H), and data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.

Mentions: EE-induced inflammatory potentiation was evaluated by measuring mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory mediators in soleus muscle (Fig. 3). In saline control rats, mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β (Figs. 3A and 3C–3E) was significantly higher in EE-challenged rats than in sedentary control rats in soleus muscle. iNOS mRNA expression in EE control was marginally higher compared to that in sedentary control rats after EE (Fig. 3B). These responses were attenuated with DS treatment, particularly when low and medium doses of DS were used. Among non-exercise rats, mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, increased significantly in the muscle of the DS-treated group in a dose-dependent manner (Figs. 3C–3E). However, expression of inflammatory markers remained below the EE-challenged level (Figs. 3A–3E). Furthermore, EE-challenged rats had increased protein levels of iNOS and eNOS significantly above non-exercise controls in soleus muscle (Figs. 3F–H); these increases were absent in all doses of DS treatment. Among non-exercise control rats, iNOS and eNOS levels were significantly greater in muscle of DS-treated rats than in those of saline control rats; however, levels were lower than those of EE-challenged saline control rats (Figs. 3F–H).


Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

Yu SH, Huang CY, Lee SD, Hsu MF, Wang RY, Kao CL, Kuo CH - PLoS ONE (2014)

Inflammatory gene and cytokine expression in soleus muscle.(A–E) Bars represent the relative quantification of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA expression levels normalized to 18S rRNA. (F) Representative western blot showing protein levels of iNOS and eNOS extracted from soleus muscle. (G–H) Bars represent the relative protein quantification of iNOS (G) and eNOS (H) normalized to GAPDH. In (A–E, G–H), and data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263678&req=5

pone-0114649-g003: Inflammatory gene and cytokine expression in soleus muscle.(A–E) Bars represent the relative quantification of COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA expression levels normalized to 18S rRNA. (F) Representative western blot showing protein levels of iNOS and eNOS extracted from soleus muscle. (G–H) Bars represent the relative protein quantification of iNOS (G) and eNOS (H) normalized to GAPDH. In (A–E, G–H), and data are presented as the mean ± SEM. †p<0.05 compared with the sedentary group. *p<0.05 compared with the control group of sedentary or EE.
Mentions: EE-induced inflammatory potentiation was evaluated by measuring mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory mediators in soleus muscle (Fig. 3). In saline control rats, mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β (Figs. 3A and 3C–3E) was significantly higher in EE-challenged rats than in sedentary control rats in soleus muscle. iNOS mRNA expression in EE control was marginally higher compared to that in sedentary control rats after EE (Fig. 3B). These responses were attenuated with DS treatment, particularly when low and medium doses of DS were used. Among non-exercise rats, mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, increased significantly in the muscle of the DS-treated group in a dose-dependent manner (Figs. 3C–3E). However, expression of inflammatory markers remained below the EE-challenged level (Figs. 3A–3E). Furthermore, EE-challenged rats had increased protein levels of iNOS and eNOS significantly above non-exercise controls in soleus muscle (Figs. 3F–H); these increases were absent in all doses of DS treatment. Among non-exercise control rats, iNOS and eNOS levels were significantly greater in muscle of DS-treated rats than in those of saline control rats; however, levels were lower than those of EE-challenged saline control rats (Figs. 3F–H).

Bottom Line: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng.In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, Yilan County, Taiwan, Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase) levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg) of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg) was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus