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Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

Yu SH, Huang CY, Lee SD, Hsu MF, Wang RY, Kao CL, Kuo CH - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng.In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, Yilan County, Taiwan, Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase) levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg) of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg) was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

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Chemical structure of dammarane steroids from Panax ginseng.
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pone-0114649-g001: Chemical structure of dammarane steroids from Panax ginseng.

Mentions: The chemical structures and content of DS (ChemSpider ID: 7827637) are shown in Fig. 1, and they were obtained from Pegasus Inc. (Vancouver, Canada). DS (20 mg) was dissolved in 10 ml methanol as test solution and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 Silica-based reversed phase HPLC column (Agilent ODS-C18, 5 µm, 4.6×150 mm). The mobile phase was a 2∶4∶2∶1 mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water, and the separation conditions were as follows: 120 ml mobile phase was injected for each separation, the flow rate was 1 ml/min, and was eluted with a retention time of 120 min. The DS was confirmed by comparison of the physical and spectral data using above process with reference standard solution containing 1.5 mg of Rh1 (C36H64O9), Rg3 (C30H54O3), Rh2 (C36H64O8), 20(S)-aglycone protopanaxadiol (aPPd) (C30H54O3) and 20(S)-aglycone protopanaxatriol (aPPt) (C30H54O4). The content of DS powder contained Rh1 (14.3%), Rg3 (3.3%), Rh2 (10.1%), aPPd (12.9%) and aPPt (31.1%).


Decreased eccentric exercise-induced macrophage infiltration in skeletal muscle after supplementation with a class of ginseng-derived steroids.

Yu SH, Huang CY, Lee SD, Hsu MF, Wang RY, Kao CL, Kuo CH - PLoS ONE (2014)

Chemical structure of dammarane steroids from Panax ginseng.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263678&req=5

pone-0114649-g001: Chemical structure of dammarane steroids from Panax ginseng.
Mentions: The chemical structures and content of DS (ChemSpider ID: 7827637) are shown in Fig. 1, and they were obtained from Pegasus Inc. (Vancouver, Canada). DS (20 mg) was dissolved in 10 ml methanol as test solution and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 Silica-based reversed phase HPLC column (Agilent ODS-C18, 5 µm, 4.6×150 mm). The mobile phase was a 2∶4∶2∶1 mixture of chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water, and the separation conditions were as follows: 120 ml mobile phase was injected for each separation, the flow rate was 1 ml/min, and was eluted with a retention time of 120 min. The DS was confirmed by comparison of the physical and spectral data using above process with reference standard solution containing 1.5 mg of Rh1 (C36H64O9), Rg3 (C30H54O3), Rh2 (C36H64O8), 20(S)-aglycone protopanaxadiol (aPPd) (C30H54O3) and 20(S)-aglycone protopanaxatriol (aPPt) (C30H54O4). The content of DS powder contained Rh1 (14.3%), Rg3 (3.3%), Rh2 (10.1%), aPPd (12.9%) and aPPt (31.1%).

Bottom Line: Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng.In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City, Taiwan, Republic of China; Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, Yilan County, Taiwan, Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Dammarane steroids (DS) are a class of chemical compounds present in Panax ginseng. Here, we evaluated the effect of 10 weeks of DS supplementation on inflammatory modulation in the soleus muscle following eccentric exercise (EE)-induced muscle damage (downhill running). Eighty rats were randomized into 4 groups of DS supplementation (saline, 20, 60, 120 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory markers were measured at rest and again 1 h after EE. At rest, NFκB signaling, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNAs, 3-nitrotyrosine, glutathione peroxidase, and GCS (glutamylcysteine synthetase) levels were significantly elevated in the skeletal muscle of DS-treated rats in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, there were no detectable increases in the number of necrotic muscle fibers or CD68+ M1 macrophages. However, muscle strength, centronucleation, IL-10 mRNA expression, and the number of CD163+ M2 macrophages increased significantly over controls with DS treatment in rat soleus muscle. Under EE-challenged conditions, significant increases in muscle fiber necrosis, CD68+ M1 macrophage distribution, and 3-nitrotyrosine were absent in rats that received low and medium doses (20 and 60 mg/kg) of DS treatment, suggesting that DS possess anti-inflammatory action protecting against a muscle-damaging challenge. However, this protective activity was diminished when a high dose of DS (120 mg/kg) was administered, suggesting that DS possess hormetic properties. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence suggesting that DS is an ergogenic component of ginseng that potentiate inflammation at baseline but that produce anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise. Furthermore, high doses should be avoided in formulating ginseng-based products.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus