Limits...
Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida).

Zhao C, Liu X, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure.Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base.A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Higher taxa Neuropterida phylogeny inferred from wing base data.A strict consensus of the most parsimonious trees inferred from the fore- and hindwing base data are presented. Only unambiguous characters are mapped. Filled circles represent homologous characters, open circles represent reversal or parallel characters. Character states are placed below the circles. Numbers on nodes indicate the bootstrap values and Bremer’s decay indices.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263614&req=5

pone-0114695-g009: Higher taxa Neuropterida phylogeny inferred from wing base data.A strict consensus of the most parsimonious trees inferred from the fore- and hindwing base data are presented. Only unambiguous characters are mapped. Filled circles represent homologous characters, open circles represent reversal or parallel characters. Character states are placed below the circles. Numbers on nodes indicate the bootstrap values and Bremer’s decay indices.

Mentions: Our matrix analysis yielded 41 equally most parsimonious trees (MPT) (tree length = 57; CI = 0.66; RI = 0.73). Topologies of the 41 MPTs are different only in the relationships within the Neuroptera; their strict consensus tree is shown in Fig. 9. In addition, PAUP*4.0b10 yielded the same results. The monophyly of Neuropterida was well supported by four homologous apomorphies: (1) the triangular ANWP (char. 3∶1), (2) the anterior part of 2Ax bends proximally (char. 14∶1), (3) 3Ax has three lobes (char. 16∶0), and (4) the PNWP has a detached sclerite (char. 22∶1). Neuroptera was assigned as the sister of Megaloptera, on the basis of the homologous synapomorphy that both have a less sclerotized detached part of the hind wing PNWP (char. 23∶1). The monophyly of Megaloptera was supported by three synapomorphies: (1) a 1Ax short neck (half the length of the head) (char. 6∶2), (2) the same strong sclerotization of the PMP and DMP (char. 18∶0), and (3) the fusion of the posterior part of the DMP and PMP (char. 19∶1). The monophyly of Neuroptera was supported by four homologous synapomorphies: (1) the detached HP (char. 2∶1), (2) the strip ANWP (char. 3∶2), (3) the width of the head of 1Ax (almost as wide as the neck) (char. 5∶2), and (4) 2Ax completely fused to the BR (char. 13∶1). The monophyly of Raphidioptera was supported by one homologous synapomorphy: the PMP is not reduced, but is less sclerotized than the DMP (char. 18∶1).


Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida).

Zhao C, Liu X, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2014)

Higher taxa Neuropterida phylogeny inferred from wing base data.A strict consensus of the most parsimonious trees inferred from the fore- and hindwing base data are presented. Only unambiguous characters are mapped. Filled circles represent homologous characters, open circles represent reversal or parallel characters. Character states are placed below the circles. Numbers on nodes indicate the bootstrap values and Bremer’s decay indices.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263614&req=5

pone-0114695-g009: Higher taxa Neuropterida phylogeny inferred from wing base data.A strict consensus of the most parsimonious trees inferred from the fore- and hindwing base data are presented. Only unambiguous characters are mapped. Filled circles represent homologous characters, open circles represent reversal or parallel characters. Character states are placed below the circles. Numbers on nodes indicate the bootstrap values and Bremer’s decay indices.
Mentions: Our matrix analysis yielded 41 equally most parsimonious trees (MPT) (tree length = 57; CI = 0.66; RI = 0.73). Topologies of the 41 MPTs are different only in the relationships within the Neuroptera; their strict consensus tree is shown in Fig. 9. In addition, PAUP*4.0b10 yielded the same results. The monophyly of Neuropterida was well supported by four homologous apomorphies: (1) the triangular ANWP (char. 3∶1), (2) the anterior part of 2Ax bends proximally (char. 14∶1), (3) 3Ax has three lobes (char. 16∶0), and (4) the PNWP has a detached sclerite (char. 22∶1). Neuroptera was assigned as the sister of Megaloptera, on the basis of the homologous synapomorphy that both have a less sclerotized detached part of the hind wing PNWP (char. 23∶1). The monophyly of Megaloptera was supported by three synapomorphies: (1) a 1Ax short neck (half the length of the head) (char. 6∶2), (2) the same strong sclerotization of the PMP and DMP (char. 18∶0), and (3) the fusion of the posterior part of the DMP and PMP (char. 19∶1). The monophyly of Neuroptera was supported by four homologous synapomorphies: (1) the detached HP (char. 2∶1), (2) the strip ANWP (char. 3∶2), (3) the width of the head of 1Ax (almost as wide as the neck) (char. 5∶2), and (4) 2Ax completely fused to the BR (char. 13∶1). The monophyly of Raphidioptera was supported by one homologous synapomorphy: the PMP is not reduced, but is less sclerotized than the DMP (char. 18∶1).

Bottom Line: The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure.Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base.A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus