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Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida).

Zhao C, Liu X, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure.Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base.A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

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Morphological variations of 1Ax among Neuropterida families.(A) Protohermes costalis (Walker) (Corydalinae); (B) Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang (Chauliodinae); (C) Sialis sibirica McLachlan (Sialidae); (D) Paraglenurus japonicas (McLachlan) (Myrmeleontidae); (E) Heterosmylus wolonganus Yang (Osmylidae); (F) Eumantispa harmandi (Navás) (Mantispidae); (G) Chrysoperla sp. (Chrysopidae); (H) Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens) (Coniopterygidae); (I) Sulphalasca sp. (Ascalaphidae); (J) Dilar hastatus Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck (Dilaridae); (K) Nipponeurorthus fuscinervis Nakahara (Nevrorthidae); (L) Hemerobius sp. (Hemerobiidae); (M) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae); (N) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae); (O) Tenthredo sp. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); (P) Taeniostigminae sp. (Psocoptera: Amphipsocidae).
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pone-0114695-g008: Morphological variations of 1Ax among Neuropterida families.(A) Protohermes costalis (Walker) (Corydalinae); (B) Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang (Chauliodinae); (C) Sialis sibirica McLachlan (Sialidae); (D) Paraglenurus japonicas (McLachlan) (Myrmeleontidae); (E) Heterosmylus wolonganus Yang (Osmylidae); (F) Eumantispa harmandi (Navás) (Mantispidae); (G) Chrysoperla sp. (Chrysopidae); (H) Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens) (Coniopterygidae); (I) Sulphalasca sp. (Ascalaphidae); (J) Dilar hastatus Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck (Dilaridae); (K) Nipponeurorthus fuscinervis Nakahara (Nevrorthidae); (L) Hemerobius sp. (Hemerobiidae); (M) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae); (N) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae); (O) Tenthredo sp. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); (P) Taeniostigminae sp. (Psocoptera: Amphipsocidae).

Mentions: Width of head of 1Ax: (0) narrower than neck; (1) wider than neck; (2) almost as wide as neck; (3) absent. This is a quantitative character, but there was no ambiguity separating two states of this character. State 1 was observed in Megaloptera (Figs. 8A–C) and Raphidioptera (Figs. 8M–N). State 2 was observed in Neuroptera (Figs. 8D–L). In Psocoptera, head-neck region of 1Ax is almost absent [47]. (CI = 0.33, RI = 0.14).


Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida).

Zhao C, Liu X, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2014)

Morphological variations of 1Ax among Neuropterida families.(A) Protohermes costalis (Walker) (Corydalinae); (B) Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang (Chauliodinae); (C) Sialis sibirica McLachlan (Sialidae); (D) Paraglenurus japonicas (McLachlan) (Myrmeleontidae); (E) Heterosmylus wolonganus Yang (Osmylidae); (F) Eumantispa harmandi (Navás) (Mantispidae); (G) Chrysoperla sp. (Chrysopidae); (H) Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens) (Coniopterygidae); (I) Sulphalasca sp. (Ascalaphidae); (J) Dilar hastatus Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck (Dilaridae); (K) Nipponeurorthus fuscinervis Nakahara (Nevrorthidae); (L) Hemerobius sp. (Hemerobiidae); (M) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae); (N) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae); (O) Tenthredo sp. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); (P) Taeniostigminae sp. (Psocoptera: Amphipsocidae).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263614&req=5

pone-0114695-g008: Morphological variations of 1Ax among Neuropterida families.(A) Protohermes costalis (Walker) (Corydalinae); (B) Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang (Chauliodinae); (C) Sialis sibirica McLachlan (Sialidae); (D) Paraglenurus japonicas (McLachlan) (Myrmeleontidae); (E) Heterosmylus wolonganus Yang (Osmylidae); (F) Eumantispa harmandi (Navás) (Mantispidae); (G) Chrysoperla sp. (Chrysopidae); (H) Semidalis aleyrodiformis (Stephens) (Coniopterygidae); (I) Sulphalasca sp. (Ascalaphidae); (J) Dilar hastatus Zhang, Liu, Aspöck & Aspöck (Dilaridae); (K) Nipponeurorthus fuscinervis Nakahara (Nevrorthidae); (L) Hemerobius sp. (Hemerobiidae); (M) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae); (N) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae); (O) Tenthredo sp. (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); (P) Taeniostigminae sp. (Psocoptera: Amphipsocidae).
Mentions: Width of head of 1Ax: (0) narrower than neck; (1) wider than neck; (2) almost as wide as neck; (3) absent. This is a quantitative character, but there was no ambiguity separating two states of this character. State 1 was observed in Megaloptera (Figs. 8A–C) and Raphidioptera (Figs. 8M–N). State 2 was observed in Neuroptera (Figs. 8D–L). In Psocoptera, head-neck region of 1Ax is almost absent [47]. (CI = 0.33, RI = 0.14).

Bottom Line: The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure.Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base.A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

Show MeSH