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Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida).

Zhao C, Liu X, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure.Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base.A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

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Wing base of Hymenoptera.(A) Tenthredo sp. (Tenthredinidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base. Wing base of Psocoptera. (C) Taeniostigminae sp. (Amphipsocidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
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pone-0114695-g007: Wing base of Hymenoptera.(A) Tenthredo sp. (Tenthredinidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base. Wing base of Psocoptera. (C) Taeniostigminae sp. (Amphipsocidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.

Mentions: In Raphidioptera, the angle between the distal margins of the body and neck of 1Ax is between 80° and 100°. In Megaloptera and Neuroptera, the angle is between 110° and 130°. In the outgroups (Fig. 7), the distal margins of the neck and body are nearly straight (∼180°).


Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida).

Zhao C, Liu X, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2014)

Wing base of Hymenoptera.(A) Tenthredo sp. (Tenthredinidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base. Wing base of Psocoptera. (C) Taeniostigminae sp. (Amphipsocidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263614&req=5

pone-0114695-g007: Wing base of Hymenoptera.(A) Tenthredo sp. (Tenthredinidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base. Wing base of Psocoptera. (C) Taeniostigminae sp. (Amphipsocidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
Mentions: In Raphidioptera, the angle between the distal margins of the body and neck of 1Ax is between 80° and 100°. In Megaloptera and Neuroptera, the angle is between 110° and 130°. In the outgroups (Fig. 7), the distal margins of the neck and body are nearly straight (∼180°).

Bottom Line: The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure.Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base.A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

Show MeSH