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Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida).

Zhao C, Liu X, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure.Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base.A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

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Wing base of Raphidioptera.(A) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
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pone-0114695-g006: Wing base of Raphidioptera.(A) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.

Mentions: The stripe-like ANWP (Figs. 3A, 3C, 4A, 4C, 5A, 5C) is always observed in Neuroptera. However, in Megaloptera and Raphidioptera, it is normally triangular (Figs. 1A, 1C, 2A, 6A, 6C). This phenomenon is concordant with observations by Beutel et al. [5].


Wing base structural data support the sister relationship of megaloptera and neuroptera (insecta: neuropterida).

Zhao C, Liu X, Yang D - PLoS ONE (2014)

Wing base of Raphidioptera.(A) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263614&req=5

pone-0114695-g006: Wing base of Raphidioptera.(A) Inocellia fujiana Yang (Inocelliidae), forewing base; (B) same, hindwing base; (C) Xanthostigma gobicola Aspöck & Aspöck (Raphidiidae), forewing base; (D) same, hindwing base.
Mentions: The stripe-like ANWP (Figs. 3A, 3C, 4A, 4C, 5A, 5C) is always observed in Neuroptera. However, in Megaloptera and Raphidioptera, it is normally triangular (Figs. 1A, 1C, 2A, 6A, 6C). This phenomenon is concordant with observations by Beutel et al. [5].

Bottom Line: The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure.Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base.A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A sister relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses.

Show MeSH