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Determination of ploidy level and isolation of genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase in Japanese Foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus).

Xu H, Zhang W, Zhang T, Li J, Wu X, Dong L - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Ploidy level is important in biodiversity studies and in developing strategies for isolating important plant genes.We found that there are two copies of the gene encoding plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) in Japanese foxtail and all the homologous genes are expressed.Additionally, no difference in ploidy levels or ACCase gene copy numbers was observed between an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and a herbicide-sensitive population in this study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in East China (Nanjing Agricultural University), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Ploidy level is important in biodiversity studies and in developing strategies for isolating important plant genes. Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but our understanding of these polyploid weeds is limited. Japanese foxtail, a noxious agricultural grass weed, has evolved herbicide resistance. However, most studies on this weed have ignored the fact that there are multiple copies of target genes. This may complicate the study of resistance mechanisms. Japanese foxtail was found to be a tetraploid by flow cytometer and chromosome counting, two commonly used methods in the determination of ploidy levels. We found that there are two copies of the gene encoding plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) in Japanese foxtail and all the homologous genes are expressed. Additionally, no difference in ploidy levels or ACCase gene copy numbers was observed between an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and a herbicide-sensitive population in this study.

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Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Japanese foxtail.Scale bar is 10 µm.
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pone-0114712-g002: Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Japanese foxtail.Scale bar is 10 µm.

Mentions: Mitotic metaphase chromosomes are advantageous for counting chromosomes. As previously reported, chromosome numbers were used to confirm the ploidy levels of different species. To determine the ploidy level of Japanese foxtail, chromosome counting was used to corroborate the flow cytometry results. More than 20 excellent mitotic cells with dispersed metaphase chromosomes were obtained and counted. The result showed 28 chromosomes in each cell (Fig. 2). Interestingly, because of the basic chromosome number in Alopecurus, which is X  =  7, the result is in accordance with 2n  =  4X  =  28 [34]. Thus, Japanese foxtail was confirmed to be tetraploid.


Determination of ploidy level and isolation of genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase in Japanese Foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus).

Xu H, Zhang W, Zhang T, Li J, Wu X, Dong L - PLoS ONE (2014)

Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Japanese foxtail.Scale bar is 10 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263612&req=5

pone-0114712-g002: Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Japanese foxtail.Scale bar is 10 µm.
Mentions: Mitotic metaphase chromosomes are advantageous for counting chromosomes. As previously reported, chromosome numbers were used to confirm the ploidy levels of different species. To determine the ploidy level of Japanese foxtail, chromosome counting was used to corroborate the flow cytometry results. More than 20 excellent mitotic cells with dispersed metaphase chromosomes were obtained and counted. The result showed 28 chromosomes in each cell (Fig. 2). Interestingly, because of the basic chromosome number in Alopecurus, which is X  =  7, the result is in accordance with 2n  =  4X  =  28 [34]. Thus, Japanese foxtail was confirmed to be tetraploid.

Bottom Line: Ploidy level is important in biodiversity studies and in developing strategies for isolating important plant genes.We found that there are two copies of the gene encoding plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) in Japanese foxtail and all the homologous genes are expressed.Additionally, no difference in ploidy levels or ACCase gene copy numbers was observed between an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and a herbicide-sensitive population in this study.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in East China (Nanjing Agricultural University), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Ploidy level is important in biodiversity studies and in developing strategies for isolating important plant genes. Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but our understanding of these polyploid weeds is limited. Japanese foxtail, a noxious agricultural grass weed, has evolved herbicide resistance. However, most studies on this weed have ignored the fact that there are multiple copies of target genes. This may complicate the study of resistance mechanisms. Japanese foxtail was found to be a tetraploid by flow cytometer and chromosome counting, two commonly used methods in the determination of ploidy levels. We found that there are two copies of the gene encoding plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) in Japanese foxtail and all the homologous genes are expressed. Additionally, no difference in ploidy levels or ACCase gene copy numbers was observed between an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and a herbicide-sensitive population in this study.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus