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Biomimetic strategies for sensing biological species.

Hussain M, Wackerlig J, Lieberzeit PA - Biosensors (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: A different strategy comprises of devising polymer coatings to change the biocompatibility of surfaces that can also be used to immobilized natural receptors/ligands and thus stabilize them.Rationally speaking, this leads to self-assembled monolayers closely resembling cell membranes, sometimes also including bioreceptors.It mainly focuses on the literature published since 2005.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, A-1090, Vienna, Austria; E-Mails: munawar_arif@hotmail.com (M.H.); judith.maehner@univie.ac.at (J.W.).

ABSTRACT
The starting point of modern biosensing was the application of actual biological species for recognition. Increasing understanding of the principles underlying such recognition (and biofunctionality in general), however, has triggered a dynamic field in chemistry and materials sciences that aims at joining the best of two worlds by combining concepts derived from nature with the processability of manmade materials, e.g., sensitivity and ruggedness. This review covers different biomimetic strategies leading to highly selective (bio)chemical sensors: the first section covers molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) that attempt to generate a fully artificial, macromolecular mold of a species in order to detect it selectively. A different strategy comprises of devising polymer coatings to change the biocompatibility of surfaces that can also be used to immobilized natural receptors/ligands and thus stabilize them. Rationally speaking, this leads to self-assembled monolayers closely resembling cell membranes, sometimes also including bioreceptors. Finally, this review will highlight some approaches to generate artificial analogs of natural recognition materials and biomimetic approaches in nanotechnology. It mainly focuses on the literature published since 2005.

No MeSH data available.


Preparation of PANI-nFe3O4-CNT nanocomposite and immobilization of biotinylated DNA using biotin-avidin coupling followed by hybridization for bacterial detection. Reprinted with permission from [53], © 2012 Elsevier.
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biosensors-03-00089-f008: Preparation of PANI-nFe3O4-CNT nanocomposite and immobilization of biotinylated DNA using biotin-avidin coupling followed by hybridization for bacterial detection. Reprinted with permission from [53], © 2012 Elsevier.

Mentions: Mesoporous materials constitute another interesting class of substrates for biomimetic sensor setups. For instance, Li et al. [51] synthesized an organic mesoporous material consisting of polyacrylamide-P123 (PAM-P123) composite films for binding hemoglobin onto the surface of glassy carbon electrodes. As compared to inorganic mesoporous materials—which are comparably widespread—the PAM-P123 composite film has a better film-forming characteristic. They used this sensor for studying the direct electron transfer of hemoglobin—which can be extended to other redox-active enzymes—and fabricating a sensitive voltammetric biosensor for H2O2. Combining the above two strategies (i.e., nanotubes and composites), Kim et al. [52] employed carbon nanotube (CNT)-based epoxy and rubber composites by fabricating a CNT flexible strain sensor for tactile sensing. Such a sensor uses a long fibrous sensor and can measure large deformation and contact information on a structure. The sensor can be regarded as a biomimetic artificial neuron because it bears some similarities with the dendrites of a neuron in the human body. Designing Artificial Neuron Matrix Systems (ANMS) by manufacturing arrays of these neurons allows signal processing for biomimetic engineering applications, e.g., as artificial e-skin with tactile sensing properties. A slightly different approach is described by Singh et al. [53]: they designed a nanocomposite of polyaniline (PANI)–iron oxide nanoparticles (nFe3O4) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) coated onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plate by electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline (see Figure 8). The resulting nanocomposite can be adapted to ultra-sensitive bacterial (N. gonorrhoeae) genosensors leading to detection limits of 1 × 10−19 M bacteria within 45 s of hybridization time at 298 K.


Biomimetic strategies for sensing biological species.

Hussain M, Wackerlig J, Lieberzeit PA - Biosensors (Basel) (2013)

Preparation of PANI-nFe3O4-CNT nanocomposite and immobilization of biotinylated DNA using biotin-avidin coupling followed by hybridization for bacterial detection. Reprinted with permission from [53], © 2012 Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263596&req=5

biosensors-03-00089-f008: Preparation of PANI-nFe3O4-CNT nanocomposite and immobilization of biotinylated DNA using biotin-avidin coupling followed by hybridization for bacterial detection. Reprinted with permission from [53], © 2012 Elsevier.
Mentions: Mesoporous materials constitute another interesting class of substrates for biomimetic sensor setups. For instance, Li et al. [51] synthesized an organic mesoporous material consisting of polyacrylamide-P123 (PAM-P123) composite films for binding hemoglobin onto the surface of glassy carbon electrodes. As compared to inorganic mesoporous materials—which are comparably widespread—the PAM-P123 composite film has a better film-forming characteristic. They used this sensor for studying the direct electron transfer of hemoglobin—which can be extended to other redox-active enzymes—and fabricating a sensitive voltammetric biosensor for H2O2. Combining the above two strategies (i.e., nanotubes and composites), Kim et al. [52] employed carbon nanotube (CNT)-based epoxy and rubber composites by fabricating a CNT flexible strain sensor for tactile sensing. Such a sensor uses a long fibrous sensor and can measure large deformation and contact information on a structure. The sensor can be regarded as a biomimetic artificial neuron because it bears some similarities with the dendrites of a neuron in the human body. Designing Artificial Neuron Matrix Systems (ANMS) by manufacturing arrays of these neurons allows signal processing for biomimetic engineering applications, e.g., as artificial e-skin with tactile sensing properties. A slightly different approach is described by Singh et al. [53]: they designed a nanocomposite of polyaniline (PANI)–iron oxide nanoparticles (nFe3O4) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) coated onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plate by electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline (see Figure 8). The resulting nanocomposite can be adapted to ultra-sensitive bacterial (N. gonorrhoeae) genosensors leading to detection limits of 1 × 10−19 M bacteria within 45 s of hybridization time at 298 K.

Bottom Line: A different strategy comprises of devising polymer coatings to change the biocompatibility of surfaces that can also be used to immobilized natural receptors/ligands and thus stabilize them.Rationally speaking, this leads to self-assembled monolayers closely resembling cell membranes, sometimes also including bioreceptors.It mainly focuses on the literature published since 2005.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, A-1090, Vienna, Austria; E-Mails: munawar_arif@hotmail.com (M.H.); judith.maehner@univie.ac.at (J.W.).

ABSTRACT
The starting point of modern biosensing was the application of actual biological species for recognition. Increasing understanding of the principles underlying such recognition (and biofunctionality in general), however, has triggered a dynamic field in chemistry and materials sciences that aims at joining the best of two worlds by combining concepts derived from nature with the processability of manmade materials, e.g., sensitivity and ruggedness. This review covers different biomimetic strategies leading to highly selective (bio)chemical sensors: the first section covers molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) that attempt to generate a fully artificial, macromolecular mold of a species in order to detect it selectively. A different strategy comprises of devising polymer coatings to change the biocompatibility of surfaces that can also be used to immobilized natural receptors/ligands and thus stabilize them. Rationally speaking, this leads to self-assembled monolayers closely resembling cell membranes, sometimes also including bioreceptors. Finally, this review will highlight some approaches to generate artificial analogs of natural recognition materials and biomimetic approaches in nanotechnology. It mainly focuses on the literature published since 2005.

No MeSH data available.