Limits...
Biomimetic strategies for sensing biological species.

Hussain M, Wackerlig J, Lieberzeit PA - Biosensors (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: A different strategy comprises of devising polymer coatings to change the biocompatibility of surfaces that can also be used to immobilized natural receptors/ligands and thus stabilize them.Rationally speaking, this leads to self-assembled monolayers closely resembling cell membranes, sometimes also including bioreceptors.It mainly focuses on the literature published since 2005.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, A-1090, Vienna, Austria; E-Mails: munawar_arif@hotmail.com (M.H.); judith.maehner@univie.ac.at (J.W.).

ABSTRACT
The starting point of modern biosensing was the application of actual biological species for recognition. Increasing understanding of the principles underlying such recognition (and biofunctionality in general), however, has triggered a dynamic field in chemistry and materials sciences that aims at joining the best of two worlds by combining concepts derived from nature with the processability of manmade materials, e.g., sensitivity and ruggedness. This review covers different biomimetic strategies leading to highly selective (bio)chemical sensors: the first section covers molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) that attempt to generate a fully artificial, macromolecular mold of a species in order to detect it selectively. A different strategy comprises of devising polymer coatings to change the biocompatibility of surfaces that can also be used to immobilized natural receptors/ligands and thus stabilize them. Rationally speaking, this leads to self-assembled monolayers closely resembling cell membranes, sometimes also including bioreceptors. Finally, this review will highlight some approaches to generate artificial analogs of natural recognition materials and biomimetic approaches in nanotechnology. It mainly focuses on the literature published since 2005.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic illustration of the strategy for Salmonella detection. (a) DNA extraction from Salmonella cells and amplification using the second step-asymmetric PCR (b) Probe immobilization and interaction with PCR amplicons. Reprinted with permission from [38], © 2012 Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263596&req=5

biosensors-03-00089-f005: Schematic illustration of the strategy for Salmonella detection. (a) DNA extraction from Salmonella cells and amplification using the second step-asymmetric PCR (b) Probe immobilization and interaction with PCR amplicons. Reprinted with permission from [38], © 2012 Elsevier.

Mentions: An example for a biomimetic DNA-based system has been presented by Pelossof et al. [39]. They coated a hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme mimicking horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto a gold electrode as electrocatalytic label. Its bioelectrocatalytic properties make it possible to develop electrochemical sensors which lead to activity of glucose oxidase and biosensors for DNA detection. Despite the fact, that the electrocatalytic activity of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme is lower than that of native horseradish peroxidase, the detection limits for DNA target was found to be 1 × 10−12 M, while a limit for AMP of 1 × 10−6 M was reached. Extending DNA biomimetic sensors, Zhang et al. [38] developed a new method of DNA biosensors for label-free, high-sensitive, specific and rapid sensing of Salmonella. They designed a biotinylated single-stranded oligonucleotide probe targeting a specific sequence in the invA gene (Salmonella-specific gene) of that species and immobilized it onto a streptavidin-coated dextran sensor surface. Employing surface plasmon resonance (SPR), detection limits of 0.5 nM were obtained with linearity from 5 to 1,000 nM. Escherichia coli and S. aureus yield no significant signal in selectivity pattern studies. Figure 5 illustrates the described strategy for Salmonella detection.


Biomimetic strategies for sensing biological species.

Hussain M, Wackerlig J, Lieberzeit PA - Biosensors (Basel) (2013)

Schematic illustration of the strategy for Salmonella detection. (a) DNA extraction from Salmonella cells and amplification using the second step-asymmetric PCR (b) Probe immobilization and interaction with PCR amplicons. Reprinted with permission from [38], © 2012 Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263596&req=5

biosensors-03-00089-f005: Schematic illustration of the strategy for Salmonella detection. (a) DNA extraction from Salmonella cells and amplification using the second step-asymmetric PCR (b) Probe immobilization and interaction with PCR amplicons. Reprinted with permission from [38], © 2012 Elsevier.
Mentions: An example for a biomimetic DNA-based system has been presented by Pelossof et al. [39]. They coated a hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme mimicking horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto a gold electrode as electrocatalytic label. Its bioelectrocatalytic properties make it possible to develop electrochemical sensors which lead to activity of glucose oxidase and biosensors for DNA detection. Despite the fact, that the electrocatalytic activity of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme is lower than that of native horseradish peroxidase, the detection limits for DNA target was found to be 1 × 10−12 M, while a limit for AMP of 1 × 10−6 M was reached. Extending DNA biomimetic sensors, Zhang et al. [38] developed a new method of DNA biosensors for label-free, high-sensitive, specific and rapid sensing of Salmonella. They designed a biotinylated single-stranded oligonucleotide probe targeting a specific sequence in the invA gene (Salmonella-specific gene) of that species and immobilized it onto a streptavidin-coated dextran sensor surface. Employing surface plasmon resonance (SPR), detection limits of 0.5 nM were obtained with linearity from 5 to 1,000 nM. Escherichia coli and S. aureus yield no significant signal in selectivity pattern studies. Figure 5 illustrates the described strategy for Salmonella detection.

Bottom Line: A different strategy comprises of devising polymer coatings to change the biocompatibility of surfaces that can also be used to immobilized natural receptors/ligands and thus stabilize them.Rationally speaking, this leads to self-assembled monolayers closely resembling cell membranes, sometimes also including bioreceptors.It mainly focuses on the literature published since 2005.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 38, A-1090, Vienna, Austria; E-Mails: munawar_arif@hotmail.com (M.H.); judith.maehner@univie.ac.at (J.W.).

ABSTRACT
The starting point of modern biosensing was the application of actual biological species for recognition. Increasing understanding of the principles underlying such recognition (and biofunctionality in general), however, has triggered a dynamic field in chemistry and materials sciences that aims at joining the best of two worlds by combining concepts derived from nature with the processability of manmade materials, e.g., sensitivity and ruggedness. This review covers different biomimetic strategies leading to highly selective (bio)chemical sensors: the first section covers molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) that attempt to generate a fully artificial, macromolecular mold of a species in order to detect it selectively. A different strategy comprises of devising polymer coatings to change the biocompatibility of surfaces that can also be used to immobilized natural receptors/ligands and thus stabilize them. Rationally speaking, this leads to self-assembled monolayers closely resembling cell membranes, sometimes also including bioreceptors. Finally, this review will highlight some approaches to generate artificial analogs of natural recognition materials and biomimetic approaches in nanotechnology. It mainly focuses on the literature published since 2005.

No MeSH data available.