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Microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors for analysis of living cells in vitro.

Wang J, Wu C, Hu N, Zhou J, Du L, Wang P - Biosensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring.In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology.Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biosensor National Special Lab, Key Lab for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zheda Road No. 38, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. wangjun-47@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA), the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Morphological changes associated with apoptosis. (1) shows a cell under normal physiological conditions. The apoptotic response leads to cellrounding (2) followed by membrane blebbing, which occurs due to weak interaction between the membrane and actin cytoskeleton (3), formation of apoptotic bodies (4), and ultimate actin-mediated engulfment of apoptotic bodies by neighboring cells (5); (b) Dynamic monitoring of cytotoxicity using the RT-CES system. A549 cells were seeded in microtiter plates containing interdigitated microelectrodes and treated with the HDAC inhibitor Scriptaid at the indicated doses; (c) Real-time IC50 values for Scriptaid. The inset shows the dose-response to Scriptaid at a single time point. (Reprinted from [165]. © 2008, with permission from John Wiley and Sons).
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biosensors-02-00127-f021: (a) Morphological changes associated with apoptosis. (1) shows a cell under normal physiological conditions. The apoptotic response leads to cellrounding (2) followed by membrane blebbing, which occurs due to weak interaction between the membrane and actin cytoskeleton (3), formation of apoptotic bodies (4), and ultimate actin-mediated engulfment of apoptotic bodies by neighboring cells (5); (b) Dynamic monitoring of cytotoxicity using the RT-CES system. A549 cells were seeded in microtiter plates containing interdigitated microelectrodes and treated with the HDAC inhibitor Scriptaid at the indicated doses; (c) Real-time IC50 values for Scriptaid. The inset shows the dose-response to Scriptaid at a single time point. (Reprinted from [165]. © 2008, with permission from John Wiley and Sons).

Mentions: Cells respond to cytotoxins in the form of loss of adhesion and cell rounding, membrane protrusions or blebbing, formation of apoptotic bodies, and the ultimate engulfment of apoptotic bodies induced by phagocytosis. These apoptotic responses indicate changes in cell adhesion and morphology, which will ultimately induce a decline of cell-substrate impedance in an acute or chronic manner. Such nonlinear dynamic changes depend largely on cell types, compound properties and concentration, and compound exposure duration (Figure 21). Keese et al. [157] demonstrated the applicability of the ECIS system for toxicological testing of fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Subsequently, many chemicals, such as antipyrine, trichlorfon, dimethyl formamide and sodium dichromate, as well as some familiar toxins such as sodium arsenite (As(III)), mercury (II) chloride, benzalkonium chloride (BAK), triton X-100, sodium lauryl sulfate, cadmium chloride (CdCl2), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), cycloheximide (CHX), and neutral red solution have been tested for cytotoxicity evaluation with various types of cells [156,158,159]. The effect of cytotoxins on cells is usually presented as time-response and dose-response curves using ECIS technology in a label-free way.


Microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors for analysis of living cells in vitro.

Wang J, Wu C, Hu N, Zhou J, Du L, Wang P - Biosensors (Basel) (2012)

(a) Morphological changes associated with apoptosis. (1) shows a cell under normal physiological conditions. The apoptotic response leads to cellrounding (2) followed by membrane blebbing, which occurs due to weak interaction between the membrane and actin cytoskeleton (3), formation of apoptotic bodies (4), and ultimate actin-mediated engulfment of apoptotic bodies by neighboring cells (5); (b) Dynamic monitoring of cytotoxicity using the RT-CES system. A549 cells were seeded in microtiter plates containing interdigitated microelectrodes and treated with the HDAC inhibitor Scriptaid at the indicated doses; (c) Real-time IC50 values for Scriptaid. The inset shows the dose-response to Scriptaid at a single time point. (Reprinted from [165]. © 2008, with permission from John Wiley and Sons).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263572&req=5

biosensors-02-00127-f021: (a) Morphological changes associated with apoptosis. (1) shows a cell under normal physiological conditions. The apoptotic response leads to cellrounding (2) followed by membrane blebbing, which occurs due to weak interaction between the membrane and actin cytoskeleton (3), formation of apoptotic bodies (4), and ultimate actin-mediated engulfment of apoptotic bodies by neighboring cells (5); (b) Dynamic monitoring of cytotoxicity using the RT-CES system. A549 cells were seeded in microtiter plates containing interdigitated microelectrodes and treated with the HDAC inhibitor Scriptaid at the indicated doses; (c) Real-time IC50 values for Scriptaid. The inset shows the dose-response to Scriptaid at a single time point. (Reprinted from [165]. © 2008, with permission from John Wiley and Sons).
Mentions: Cells respond to cytotoxins in the form of loss of adhesion and cell rounding, membrane protrusions or blebbing, formation of apoptotic bodies, and the ultimate engulfment of apoptotic bodies induced by phagocytosis. These apoptotic responses indicate changes in cell adhesion and morphology, which will ultimately induce a decline of cell-substrate impedance in an acute or chronic manner. Such nonlinear dynamic changes depend largely on cell types, compound properties and concentration, and compound exposure duration (Figure 21). Keese et al. [157] demonstrated the applicability of the ECIS system for toxicological testing of fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Subsequently, many chemicals, such as antipyrine, trichlorfon, dimethyl formamide and sodium dichromate, as well as some familiar toxins such as sodium arsenite (As(III)), mercury (II) chloride, benzalkonium chloride (BAK), triton X-100, sodium lauryl sulfate, cadmium chloride (CdCl2), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), cycloheximide (CHX), and neutral red solution have been tested for cytotoxicity evaluation with various types of cells [156,158,159]. The effect of cytotoxins on cells is usually presented as time-response and dose-response curves using ECIS technology in a label-free way.

Bottom Line: When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring.In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology.Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biosensor National Special Lab, Key Lab for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zheda Road No. 38, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. wangjun-47@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA), the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus