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Microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors for analysis of living cells in vitro.

Wang J, Wu C, Hu N, Zhou J, Du L, Wang P - Biosensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring.In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology.Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biosensor National Special Lab, Key Lab for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zheda Road No. 38, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. wangjun-47@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA), the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

AP conduction in patterned cardiac myocyte monolayers. (a) Phase contrast picture of cardiac myocyte patterns on the top of the substrate embedded electrodes (electrode distance is 200 μm) with a sketch of the conduction pathway on the completed pattern and with the recorded extracellular signals on the given electrodes; (b) Overlay of the recorded traces showing the temporal relationship of the signals. (Reprinted from [53]. © 2011, with permission from Elsevier).
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biosensors-02-00127-f010: AP conduction in patterned cardiac myocyte monolayers. (a) Phase contrast picture of cardiac myocyte patterns on the top of the substrate embedded electrodes (electrode distance is 200 μm) with a sketch of the conduction pathway on the completed pattern and with the recorded extracellular signals on the given electrodes; (b) Overlay of the recorded traces showing the temporal relationship of the signals. (Reprinted from [53]. © 2011, with permission from Elsevier).

Mentions: The cardiac biomarker sensing [26] using MEA has been reported. In addition, the cultured cardiomyocytes form a confluent contracting layer when mature and they exhibit spontaneous, rhythmic and synchronous excitability. The physiology of cardiomyocytes such as propagation and conduction properties is also learnt by the MEA cardiac biosensor. Natarajan et al. [53] developed a modified MEA for cell patterning to study the cardiac physiology. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were modified on the surface of MEA with a photolithography method. An adsorbed fibronectin layer was used as the foreground to support cardiac myocytes attachment and growth, and a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) SAM was used as the background to prevent protein adsorption. By doing this, the beating cells were allowed to grow exclusively over specific electrodes. With patterning of the cells on the electrode array, the exact path of a spontaneous excitation wave can be determined and then, using the path length, conduction velocity can be calculated with a high degree of accuracy. The conduction velocity was 0.190–0.025 m/s for spontaneous firing of the patterned cardiomyocytes over eight different MEAs (Figure 10). The conduction velocity at stimulation mode under different frequencies was also measured by this system. This helped to understand the electrophysiological properties of cultured cardiomyocytes. A device for separated and reversible co-culture of cardiomyocytes provides a meaningful platform for studying the AP propagation between cardiomyocytes and skeletal myoblasts through the analysis of conduction velocity across the MEA [54].


Microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors for analysis of living cells in vitro.

Wang J, Wu C, Hu N, Zhou J, Du L, Wang P - Biosensors (Basel) (2012)

AP conduction in patterned cardiac myocyte monolayers. (a) Phase contrast picture of cardiac myocyte patterns on the top of the substrate embedded electrodes (electrode distance is 200 μm) with a sketch of the conduction pathway on the completed pattern and with the recorded extracellular signals on the given electrodes; (b) Overlay of the recorded traces showing the temporal relationship of the signals. (Reprinted from [53]. © 2011, with permission from Elsevier).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263572&req=5

biosensors-02-00127-f010: AP conduction in patterned cardiac myocyte monolayers. (a) Phase contrast picture of cardiac myocyte patterns on the top of the substrate embedded electrodes (electrode distance is 200 μm) with a sketch of the conduction pathway on the completed pattern and with the recorded extracellular signals on the given electrodes; (b) Overlay of the recorded traces showing the temporal relationship of the signals. (Reprinted from [53]. © 2011, with permission from Elsevier).
Mentions: The cardiac biomarker sensing [26] using MEA has been reported. In addition, the cultured cardiomyocytes form a confluent contracting layer when mature and they exhibit spontaneous, rhythmic and synchronous excitability. The physiology of cardiomyocytes such as propagation and conduction properties is also learnt by the MEA cardiac biosensor. Natarajan et al. [53] developed a modified MEA for cell patterning to study the cardiac physiology. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were modified on the surface of MEA with a photolithography method. An adsorbed fibronectin layer was used as the foreground to support cardiac myocytes attachment and growth, and a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) SAM was used as the background to prevent protein adsorption. By doing this, the beating cells were allowed to grow exclusively over specific electrodes. With patterning of the cells on the electrode array, the exact path of a spontaneous excitation wave can be determined and then, using the path length, conduction velocity can be calculated with a high degree of accuracy. The conduction velocity was 0.190–0.025 m/s for spontaneous firing of the patterned cardiomyocytes over eight different MEAs (Figure 10). The conduction velocity at stimulation mode under different frequencies was also measured by this system. This helped to understand the electrophysiological properties of cultured cardiomyocytes. A device for separated and reversible co-culture of cardiomyocytes provides a meaningful platform for studying the AP propagation between cardiomyocytes and skeletal myoblasts through the analysis of conduction velocity across the MEA [54].

Bottom Line: When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring.In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology.Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biosensor National Special Lab, Key Lab for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zheda Road No. 38, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. wangjun-47@163.com.

ABSTRACT
Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA), the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus