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Detection of cardiac biomarkers using single polyaniline nanowire-based conductometric biosensors.

Lee I, Luo X, Huang J, Cui XT, Yun M - Biosensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The single PANI nanowire-based biosensors displayed linear sensing profiles for concentrations ranging from hundreds (fg/mL) to tens (ng/mL).This single PANI nanowire-based biosensor demonstrated superior biosensing reliability with the feasibility of label free detection and improved processing cost efficiency due to good biocompatibility of PANI to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).Therefore, this development of single PANI nanowire-based biosensors can be applied to other biosensors for cancer or other diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. inl8@pitt.edu.

ABSTRACT
The detection of myoglobin (Myo), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plays a vital role in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. Here we present single site-specific polyaniline (PANI) nanowire biosensors that can detect cardiac biomarkers such as Myo, cTnI, CK-MB, and BNP with ultra-high sensitivity and good specificity. Using single PANI nanowire-based biosensors integrated with microfluidic channels, very low concentrations of Myo (100 pg/mL), cTnI (250 fg/mL), CK-MB (150 fg/mL), and BNP (50 fg/mL) were detected. The single PANI nanowire-based biosensors displayed linear sensing profiles for concentrations ranging from hundreds (fg/mL) to tens (ng/mL). In addition, devices showed a fast (few minutes) response satisfying respective reference conditions for Myo, cTnI, CK-MB, and BNP diagnosis of heart failure and for determining the stage of the disease. This single PANI nanowire-based biosensor demonstrated superior biosensing reliability with the feasibility of label free detection and improved processing cost efficiency due to good biocompatibility of PANI to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Therefore, this development of single PANI nanowire-based biosensors can be applied to other biosensors for cancer or other diseases.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Biosensing of cardiac biomarkers in a broad sensing range and optimization of sensing performance. (a) Stepwise change of conductance according to introducing different concentrations of BNP to the nanowire biosensor (a: PBS, b: 100 ng/mL BSA, c: 1 ng/mL BNP, d: 10 ng/mL BNP, and e: 100 ng/mL BNP); (b) In order to optimize the condition of functionalization, sensitivities of the nanowire biosensors are compared in different concentrations of cTnI mAbs. 200 µg/mL cTnI mAbs presents the best linear sensing profile and the highest sensitivity of the three different conditions of cTnI mAbs; (c) For CK-MB, 200 µg/mL CK-MB mAbs shows the best sensing profile without fluctuation of sensitivity; (d) For BNP, 100 µg/mL BNP mAbs provide higher sensitivity in the broad sensing range than other conditions.
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biosensors-02-00205-f005: Biosensing of cardiac biomarkers in a broad sensing range and optimization of sensing performance. (a) Stepwise change of conductance according to introducing different concentrations of BNP to the nanowire biosensor (a: PBS, b: 100 ng/mL BSA, c: 1 ng/mL BNP, d: 10 ng/mL BNP, and e: 100 ng/mL BNP); (b) In order to optimize the condition of functionalization, sensitivities of the nanowire biosensors are compared in different concentrations of cTnI mAbs. 200 µg/mL cTnI mAbs presents the best linear sensing profile and the highest sensitivity of the three different conditions of cTnI mAbs; (c) For CK-MB, 200 µg/mL CK-MB mAbs shows the best sensing profile without fluctuation of sensitivity; (d) For BNP, 100 µg/mL BNP mAbs provide higher sensitivity in the broad sensing range than other conditions.

Mentions: In the biosensing of cardiac biomarkers, it is crucial that a biosensor has a broad range of detection for the diagnosis of heart disease. In order to investigate the sensing performance, various concentrations of BNP from 1 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL were introduced to the single PANI nanowire biosensor as shown in Figure 5(a). Above the baseline of conductance in PBS (mark a), the nanowire biosensor shows noticeable conductance changes along the different concentration of BNP as demonstrated in Figure 5(a); (b): 100 ng/mL BSA; (c): 1 ng/mL BNP; (d): 10 ng/mL BNP, and (e): 100 ng/mL BNP. The increased concentration of BNP provides a stronger charge effect due to accumulation of holes in the PANI nanowire. However, the continuous biosensing tests with several different concentrations of cardiac biomarkers consume the detectable mAbs and make the change of conductance become small with the saturation of conductance. During the biosensing of BNP, the change of conductance occurs within a few minutes after the introduction of the target proteins solutions to the single PANI nanowire. In addition, the continuous biosensing tests for Myo, cTnI and CK-MB show similar results to BNP with increasing the concentration of cardiac biomarkers [45]. Therefore, our biosensing results for cardiac biomarkers indicate that the developed single PANI nanowire biosensors show a wide sensing range, required reference values, and fast response time required to provide label free emergency detection and diagnosis.


Detection of cardiac biomarkers using single polyaniline nanowire-based conductometric biosensors.

Lee I, Luo X, Huang J, Cui XT, Yun M - Biosensors (Basel) (2012)

Biosensing of cardiac biomarkers in a broad sensing range and optimization of sensing performance. (a) Stepwise change of conductance according to introducing different concentrations of BNP to the nanowire biosensor (a: PBS, b: 100 ng/mL BSA, c: 1 ng/mL BNP, d: 10 ng/mL BNP, and e: 100 ng/mL BNP); (b) In order to optimize the condition of functionalization, sensitivities of the nanowire biosensors are compared in different concentrations of cTnI mAbs. 200 µg/mL cTnI mAbs presents the best linear sensing profile and the highest sensitivity of the three different conditions of cTnI mAbs; (c) For CK-MB, 200 µg/mL CK-MB mAbs shows the best sensing profile without fluctuation of sensitivity; (d) For BNP, 100 µg/mL BNP mAbs provide higher sensitivity in the broad sensing range than other conditions.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263570&req=5

biosensors-02-00205-f005: Biosensing of cardiac biomarkers in a broad sensing range and optimization of sensing performance. (a) Stepwise change of conductance according to introducing different concentrations of BNP to the nanowire biosensor (a: PBS, b: 100 ng/mL BSA, c: 1 ng/mL BNP, d: 10 ng/mL BNP, and e: 100 ng/mL BNP); (b) In order to optimize the condition of functionalization, sensitivities of the nanowire biosensors are compared in different concentrations of cTnI mAbs. 200 µg/mL cTnI mAbs presents the best linear sensing profile and the highest sensitivity of the three different conditions of cTnI mAbs; (c) For CK-MB, 200 µg/mL CK-MB mAbs shows the best sensing profile without fluctuation of sensitivity; (d) For BNP, 100 µg/mL BNP mAbs provide higher sensitivity in the broad sensing range than other conditions.
Mentions: In the biosensing of cardiac biomarkers, it is crucial that a biosensor has a broad range of detection for the diagnosis of heart disease. In order to investigate the sensing performance, various concentrations of BNP from 1 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL were introduced to the single PANI nanowire biosensor as shown in Figure 5(a). Above the baseline of conductance in PBS (mark a), the nanowire biosensor shows noticeable conductance changes along the different concentration of BNP as demonstrated in Figure 5(a); (b): 100 ng/mL BSA; (c): 1 ng/mL BNP; (d): 10 ng/mL BNP, and (e): 100 ng/mL BNP. The increased concentration of BNP provides a stronger charge effect due to accumulation of holes in the PANI nanowire. However, the continuous biosensing tests with several different concentrations of cardiac biomarkers consume the detectable mAbs and make the change of conductance become small with the saturation of conductance. During the biosensing of BNP, the change of conductance occurs within a few minutes after the introduction of the target proteins solutions to the single PANI nanowire. In addition, the continuous biosensing tests for Myo, cTnI and CK-MB show similar results to BNP with increasing the concentration of cardiac biomarkers [45]. Therefore, our biosensing results for cardiac biomarkers indicate that the developed single PANI nanowire biosensors show a wide sensing range, required reference values, and fast response time required to provide label free emergency detection and diagnosis.

Bottom Line: The single PANI nanowire-based biosensors displayed linear sensing profiles for concentrations ranging from hundreds (fg/mL) to tens (ng/mL).This single PANI nanowire-based biosensor demonstrated superior biosensing reliability with the feasibility of label free detection and improved processing cost efficiency due to good biocompatibility of PANI to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).Therefore, this development of single PANI nanowire-based biosensors can be applied to other biosensors for cancer or other diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. inl8@pitt.edu.

ABSTRACT
The detection of myoglobin (Myo), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plays a vital role in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. Here we present single site-specific polyaniline (PANI) nanowire biosensors that can detect cardiac biomarkers such as Myo, cTnI, CK-MB, and BNP with ultra-high sensitivity and good specificity. Using single PANI nanowire-based biosensors integrated with microfluidic channels, very low concentrations of Myo (100 pg/mL), cTnI (250 fg/mL), CK-MB (150 fg/mL), and BNP (50 fg/mL) were detected. The single PANI nanowire-based biosensors displayed linear sensing profiles for concentrations ranging from hundreds (fg/mL) to tens (ng/mL). In addition, devices showed a fast (few minutes) response satisfying respective reference conditions for Myo, cTnI, CK-MB, and BNP diagnosis of heart failure and for determining the stage of the disease. This single PANI nanowire-based biosensor demonstrated superior biosensing reliability with the feasibility of label free detection and improved processing cost efficiency due to good biocompatibility of PANI to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Therefore, this development of single PANI nanowire-based biosensors can be applied to other biosensors for cancer or other diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus