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Detection of cardiac biomarkers using single polyaniline nanowire-based conductometric biosensors.

Lee I, Luo X, Huang J, Cui XT, Yun M - Biosensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The single PANI nanowire-based biosensors displayed linear sensing profiles for concentrations ranging from hundreds (fg/mL) to tens (ng/mL).This single PANI nanowire-based biosensor demonstrated superior biosensing reliability with the feasibility of label free detection and improved processing cost efficiency due to good biocompatibility of PANI to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).Therefore, this development of single PANI nanowire-based biosensors can be applied to other biosensors for cancer or other diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. inl8@pitt.edu.

ABSTRACT
The detection of myoglobin (Myo), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plays a vital role in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. Here we present single site-specific polyaniline (PANI) nanowire biosensors that can detect cardiac biomarkers such as Myo, cTnI, CK-MB, and BNP with ultra-high sensitivity and good specificity. Using single PANI nanowire-based biosensors integrated with microfluidic channels, very low concentrations of Myo (100 pg/mL), cTnI (250 fg/mL), CK-MB (150 fg/mL), and BNP (50 fg/mL) were detected. The single PANI nanowire-based biosensors displayed linear sensing profiles for concentrations ranging from hundreds (fg/mL) to tens (ng/mL). In addition, devices showed a fast (few minutes) response satisfying respective reference conditions for Myo, cTnI, CK-MB, and BNP diagnosis of heart failure and for determining the stage of the disease. This single PANI nanowire-based biosensor demonstrated superior biosensing reliability with the feasibility of label free detection and improved processing cost efficiency due to good biocompatibility of PANI to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Therefore, this development of single PANI nanowire-based biosensors can be applied to other biosensors for cancer or other diseases.

No MeSH data available.


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Specificity tests of the single PANI nanowire biosensor in the presence of non-target proteins. (a) For detection of cTnI (a: PBS, b: 1 ng/mL BSA, c: 500 fg/mL cTnI, d: PBS, e: 1 ng/mL Myo, f: 1 ng/mL CK-MB, g: 1 ng/mL BNP, and h: 1 ng/mL cTnI), the nanowire biosensor responds to only cTnI; (b) For detection of CK-MB (a: PBS, b: 1 ng/mL BSA, c: 100 ng/mL BSA, d: 25 pg/mL CK-MB, e: PBS, f: 1 ng/mL Myo, g: 1 ng/mL cTnI, h: 1 ng/mL BNP, and i: 1 ng/mL CK-MB), the nanowire biosensor responds to only CK-MB; (c) For detection of BNP (a: PBS, b: 100 ng/mL BSA, c: 1 ng/mL BNP, d: 10 ng/mL BNP, e: PBS, f: 1 ng/mL Myo, g: 1 ng/mL cTnI, h: 1 ng/mL CK-MB, and i: 1 ng/mL BNP), the nanowire biosensor responds to only BNP.
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biosensors-02-00205-f004: Specificity tests of the single PANI nanowire biosensor in the presence of non-target proteins. (a) For detection of cTnI (a: PBS, b: 1 ng/mL BSA, c: 500 fg/mL cTnI, d: PBS, e: 1 ng/mL Myo, f: 1 ng/mL CK-MB, g: 1 ng/mL BNP, and h: 1 ng/mL cTnI), the nanowire biosensor responds to only cTnI; (b) For detection of CK-MB (a: PBS, b: 1 ng/mL BSA, c: 100 ng/mL BSA, d: 25 pg/mL CK-MB, e: PBS, f: 1 ng/mL Myo, g: 1 ng/mL cTnI, h: 1 ng/mL BNP, and i: 1 ng/mL CK-MB), the nanowire biosensor responds to only CK-MB; (c) For detection of BNP (a: PBS, b: 100 ng/mL BSA, c: 1 ng/mL BNP, d: 10 ng/mL BNP, e: PBS, f: 1 ng/mL Myo, g: 1 ng/mL cTnI, h: 1 ng/mL CK-MB, and i: 1 ng/mL BNP), the nanowire biosensor responds to only BNP.

Mentions: This detection limit of Myo supported with the microfluidic channel is much lower than our previous result of 1.3 ng/mL and shows ultra-high specificity to BSA of 100 ng/mL [45]. In these tests, the specificity values were calculated in the range from 1 × 104 fold in Myo detection to 2 × 106 fold in BNP detection (cTnI: 4 × 105 fold and CK-MB: 6.7 × 105 fold). These detection limits of cardiac biomarkers were measured in the absence of non-specific proteins; the biosensing of cardiac biomarkers was measured after the flow of non-specific protein solution into the microfluidic channels. In order to apply the biosensor for practical diagnosis, it is necessary to verify sensing performance in the presence of BSA or non-target cardiac biomarkers as shown in Figure 4.


Detection of cardiac biomarkers using single polyaniline nanowire-based conductometric biosensors.

Lee I, Luo X, Huang J, Cui XT, Yun M - Biosensors (Basel) (2012)

Specificity tests of the single PANI nanowire biosensor in the presence of non-target proteins. (a) For detection of cTnI (a: PBS, b: 1 ng/mL BSA, c: 500 fg/mL cTnI, d: PBS, e: 1 ng/mL Myo, f: 1 ng/mL CK-MB, g: 1 ng/mL BNP, and h: 1 ng/mL cTnI), the nanowire biosensor responds to only cTnI; (b) For detection of CK-MB (a: PBS, b: 1 ng/mL BSA, c: 100 ng/mL BSA, d: 25 pg/mL CK-MB, e: PBS, f: 1 ng/mL Myo, g: 1 ng/mL cTnI, h: 1 ng/mL BNP, and i: 1 ng/mL CK-MB), the nanowire biosensor responds to only CK-MB; (c) For detection of BNP (a: PBS, b: 100 ng/mL BSA, c: 1 ng/mL BNP, d: 10 ng/mL BNP, e: PBS, f: 1 ng/mL Myo, g: 1 ng/mL cTnI, h: 1 ng/mL CK-MB, and i: 1 ng/mL BNP), the nanowire biosensor responds to only BNP.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263570&req=5

biosensors-02-00205-f004: Specificity tests of the single PANI nanowire biosensor in the presence of non-target proteins. (a) For detection of cTnI (a: PBS, b: 1 ng/mL BSA, c: 500 fg/mL cTnI, d: PBS, e: 1 ng/mL Myo, f: 1 ng/mL CK-MB, g: 1 ng/mL BNP, and h: 1 ng/mL cTnI), the nanowire biosensor responds to only cTnI; (b) For detection of CK-MB (a: PBS, b: 1 ng/mL BSA, c: 100 ng/mL BSA, d: 25 pg/mL CK-MB, e: PBS, f: 1 ng/mL Myo, g: 1 ng/mL cTnI, h: 1 ng/mL BNP, and i: 1 ng/mL CK-MB), the nanowire biosensor responds to only CK-MB; (c) For detection of BNP (a: PBS, b: 100 ng/mL BSA, c: 1 ng/mL BNP, d: 10 ng/mL BNP, e: PBS, f: 1 ng/mL Myo, g: 1 ng/mL cTnI, h: 1 ng/mL CK-MB, and i: 1 ng/mL BNP), the nanowire biosensor responds to only BNP.
Mentions: This detection limit of Myo supported with the microfluidic channel is much lower than our previous result of 1.3 ng/mL and shows ultra-high specificity to BSA of 100 ng/mL [45]. In these tests, the specificity values were calculated in the range from 1 × 104 fold in Myo detection to 2 × 106 fold in BNP detection (cTnI: 4 × 105 fold and CK-MB: 6.7 × 105 fold). These detection limits of cardiac biomarkers were measured in the absence of non-specific proteins; the biosensing of cardiac biomarkers was measured after the flow of non-specific protein solution into the microfluidic channels. In order to apply the biosensor for practical diagnosis, it is necessary to verify sensing performance in the presence of BSA or non-target cardiac biomarkers as shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: The single PANI nanowire-based biosensors displayed linear sensing profiles for concentrations ranging from hundreds (fg/mL) to tens (ng/mL).This single PANI nanowire-based biosensor demonstrated superior biosensing reliability with the feasibility of label free detection and improved processing cost efficiency due to good biocompatibility of PANI to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).Therefore, this development of single PANI nanowire-based biosensors can be applied to other biosensors for cancer or other diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. inl8@pitt.edu.

ABSTRACT
The detection of myoglobin (Myo), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) plays a vital role in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. Here we present single site-specific polyaniline (PANI) nanowire biosensors that can detect cardiac biomarkers such as Myo, cTnI, CK-MB, and BNP with ultra-high sensitivity and good specificity. Using single PANI nanowire-based biosensors integrated with microfluidic channels, very low concentrations of Myo (100 pg/mL), cTnI (250 fg/mL), CK-MB (150 fg/mL), and BNP (50 fg/mL) were detected. The single PANI nanowire-based biosensors displayed linear sensing profiles for concentrations ranging from hundreds (fg/mL) to tens (ng/mL). In addition, devices showed a fast (few minutes) response satisfying respective reference conditions for Myo, cTnI, CK-MB, and BNP diagnosis of heart failure and for determining the stage of the disease. This single PANI nanowire-based biosensor demonstrated superior biosensing reliability with the feasibility of label free detection and improved processing cost efficiency due to good biocompatibility of PANI to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Therefore, this development of single PANI nanowire-based biosensors can be applied to other biosensors for cancer or other diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus