Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs.
Bottom Line: Our data show that the gall bladder ecosystem is mainly populated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes.Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed us to visualize the presence of individual bacteria of different morphological types, in close association with either the epithelium or the erythrocytes, or inside the epithelial cells.Our work has generated new knowledge of bile microbial profiles and functions and might provide the basis for future studies on the relationship between bile microbiota, gut microbiota, and health.
Affiliation: Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain.Show MeSH
Mentions: A total of 214 proteins were identified in five bile samples. Of them, 129 were multiple-hit proteins and 85 were identified with one peptide in at least two injections (Table S2). Among all entries, 22 proteins were specifically associated to the Bacteria superkingdom (Table S3), 191 were from the Sus scrofa species, and 1 was found ambiguously associated to both taxonomic ranks. The subsequent classification of bacterial proteins according to the phylum of the source microorganisms revealed that most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria (53%). Other represented phyla included Firmicutes (29%), Actinobacteria (12%), and Cyanobacteria (6%) (Fig. 5). Unfortunately, any further analysis of the bacterial genera and species was hampered by the inadequate number of unique bacterial peptides, probably due to the interference of most abundant pig proteins.
Affiliation: Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain.