Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs.
Bottom Line: Our data show that the gall bladder ecosystem is mainly populated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes.Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed us to visualize the presence of individual bacteria of different morphological types, in close association with either the epithelium or the erythrocytes, or inside the epithelial cells.Our work has generated new knowledge of bile microbial profiles and functions and might provide the basis for future studies on the relationship between bile microbiota, gut microbiota, and health.
Affiliation: Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain.Show MeSH
Mentions: The presence of individual bacteria was visualized with the green FAM fluorescence in the gall bladder biopsy samples obtained from the sows (Fig. 1). Different morphological types of bacteria were observed (Fig. 1) and most of them were located in the border of the tissue (Fig. 1A, B, and E) although a few seemed to be inside the epithelial cells, as indicated by their close associated to the host cell nuclei (Fig. 1C and D). Similarly to the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, some structures that were compatible with bacteria could be observed in the gall bladder biopsies by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (Fig. 2). Interestingly, by using this technique, some bacterial-like structures could be seen in close association with erythrocytes within the gall bladder tissue (Fig. 2A–C).
Affiliation: Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain.