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An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

Wu M, Xiao H, Ren W, Yin J, Hu J, Duan J, Liu G, Tan B, Xiong X, Oso AO, Adeola O, Yao K, Yin Y, Li T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products.The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05).Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05). Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Addition glutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05). These novel findings indicate that glutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

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OPLA-DA scores for CPMG spectra of NC (▪), DON (▴), DG (•) and GLU (○) groups.Dietary treatments were NC, an uncontaminated basal diet, DON, the basal contaminated with 4 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, GLU, uncontaminated basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation, and DG, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (4 mg/kg) basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation.
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pone-0113687-g003: OPLA-DA scores for CPMG spectra of NC (▪), DON (▴), DG (•) and GLU (○) groups.Dietary treatments were NC, an uncontaminated basal diet, DON, the basal contaminated with 4 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, GLU, uncontaminated basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation, and DG, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (4 mg/kg) basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation.

Mentions: PCA of plasma CMPG and standard 1D spectral data of piglets in the four groups showed clear clustering (data not shown). Further analysis using OPLS-DA indicated that the concentrations of plasma HDL, proline, acetate, citrate, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate were decreased (P<0.05) in the DON group, compared with those in the NC and GLU groups, while the concentrations of LDL, alanine, arginine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were increased (P<0.05) in the DON group, compared with those in the NC and GLU groups. Concentrations of plasma proline, citrate, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate were higher (P<0.05) in the DG group than in the DON group, and concentrations of plasma alanine, arginine, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were lower (P<0.05) in the DG group (Fig. 3 and Table 4).


An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

Wu M, Xiao H, Ren W, Yin J, Hu J, Duan J, Liu G, Tan B, Xiong X, Oso AO, Adeola O, Yao K, Yin Y, Li T - PLoS ONE (2014)

OPLA-DA scores for CPMG spectra of NC (▪), DON (▴), DG (•) and GLU (○) groups.Dietary treatments were NC, an uncontaminated basal diet, DON, the basal contaminated with 4 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, GLU, uncontaminated basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation, and DG, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (4 mg/kg) basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263475&req=5

pone-0113687-g003: OPLA-DA scores for CPMG spectra of NC (▪), DON (▴), DG (•) and GLU (○) groups.Dietary treatments were NC, an uncontaminated basal diet, DON, the basal contaminated with 4 mg/kg deoxynivalenol, GLU, uncontaminated basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation, and DG, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (4 mg/kg) basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation.
Mentions: PCA of plasma CMPG and standard 1D spectral data of piglets in the four groups showed clear clustering (data not shown). Further analysis using OPLS-DA indicated that the concentrations of plasma HDL, proline, acetate, citrate, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate were decreased (P<0.05) in the DON group, compared with those in the NC and GLU groups, while the concentrations of LDL, alanine, arginine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were increased (P<0.05) in the DON group, compared with those in the NC and GLU groups. Concentrations of plasma proline, citrate, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate were higher (P<0.05) in the DG group than in the DON group, and concentrations of plasma alanine, arginine, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were lower (P<0.05) in the DG group (Fig. 3 and Table 4).

Bottom Line: Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products.The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05).Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05). Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Addition glutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05). These novel findings indicate that glutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus