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An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

Wu M, Xiao H, Ren W, Yin J, Hu J, Duan J, Liu G, Tan B, Xiong X, Oso AO, Adeola O, Yao K, Yin Y, Li T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products.The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05).Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05). Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Addition glutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05). These novel findings indicate that glutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

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Typical 600 MHz 1H NMR spectra of plasma taken from piglets from standard 1D (A), CMPG (B) and BPP-LED (C) experiments.The spectra in the aromatic region were magnified four times (A) (δ 5.7–8.5) or eight times (B) (δ 5.7–8.5) compared to the aliphatic region (δ 0.6–5.4). Keys for metabolites are given in Table 4.
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pone-0113687-g002: Typical 600 MHz 1H NMR spectra of plasma taken from piglets from standard 1D (A), CMPG (B) and BPP-LED (C) experiments.The spectra in the aromatic region were magnified four times (A) (δ 5.7–8.5) or eight times (B) (δ 5.7–8.5) compared to the aliphatic region (δ 0.6–5.4). Keys for metabolites are given in Table 4.

Mentions: 1H NMR spectra of biological fluids and tissues provide a unique fingerprint of the metabolic state of an organism along with considerable information on the nature of the drug or toxin to which an animal has been exposed [22], [23]. Examples of a 1H NMR CPMG (Fig. 2 A), standard 1D (Fig. 2 B), and BPP-LED (Fig. 2 C) spectra from a representative control pig fed the uncontaminated basal diet are shown in Fig. 2. In these spectra, 39 metabolites were unambiguously assigned by comparison to the published literature[12], [18], [24]–[26]. These assignments were confirmed by two-dimensional 1H-1H COSY and TOCSY methods (data not shown).


An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

Wu M, Xiao H, Ren W, Yin J, Hu J, Duan J, Liu G, Tan B, Xiong X, Oso AO, Adeola O, Yao K, Yin Y, Li T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Typical 600 MHz 1H NMR spectra of plasma taken from piglets from standard 1D (A), CMPG (B) and BPP-LED (C) experiments.The spectra in the aromatic region were magnified four times (A) (δ 5.7–8.5) or eight times (B) (δ 5.7–8.5) compared to the aliphatic region (δ 0.6–5.4). Keys for metabolites are given in Table 4.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263475&req=5

pone-0113687-g002: Typical 600 MHz 1H NMR spectra of plasma taken from piglets from standard 1D (A), CMPG (B) and BPP-LED (C) experiments.The spectra in the aromatic region were magnified four times (A) (δ 5.7–8.5) or eight times (B) (δ 5.7–8.5) compared to the aliphatic region (δ 0.6–5.4). Keys for metabolites are given in Table 4.
Mentions: 1H NMR spectra of biological fluids and tissues provide a unique fingerprint of the metabolic state of an organism along with considerable information on the nature of the drug or toxin to which an animal has been exposed [22], [23]. Examples of a 1H NMR CPMG (Fig. 2 A), standard 1D (Fig. 2 B), and BPP-LED (Fig. 2 C) spectra from a representative control pig fed the uncontaminated basal diet are shown in Fig. 2. In these spectra, 39 metabolites were unambiguously assigned by comparison to the published literature[12], [18], [24]–[26]. These assignments were confirmed by two-dimensional 1H-1H COSY and TOCSY methods (data not shown).

Bottom Line: Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products.The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05).Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05). Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Addition glutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05). These novel findings indicate that glutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus